Showing posts with label Law degree program. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Law degree program. Show all posts

Online Criminal Justice Degree: Factors to Consider

Deciding on the right online criminal justice degree program can be a daunting task, given the multitude of options available. The significance of education and its impact on your future makes this choice critical. This article aims to provide a comprehensive guide to help you navigate through the crucial factors that should influence your decision. 

By understanding these key considerations, you'll be better equipped to choose an online criminal justice degree program that aligns with your goals, aspirations, and learning style.

Pursuing an Online Criminal Justice Degree

Career Objectives in Criminal Justice

Before embarking on your search for the perfect online criminal justice degree program, it's essential to have a clear understanding of your career objectives

Whether you aspire to be a police officer, crime scene specialist, or forensic psychologist, defining your goals will guide your program selection. 

Different universities offer specialised concentrations and certifications, so ensuring that your chosen program matches your aspirations is crucial. Also, consider universities - for PNG Students choose an Australia, Singapore and New Zealand university,  that offer accelerated bachelor's to master's pathways if you plan to pursue further education.

Ideally, a country that is in the similar time zones so that you can work with 1 or 2 hours time difference.

Admissions & Application Process

The admission requirements and application process vary widely among online universities. Some institutions have selective enrollment, while others have open enrollment policies. 

Selective enrollment universities usually have stringent admission criteria, including minimum GPA, standardized test scores, and personal statements.

Open enrollment universities are ideal for those with varied academic backgrounds or individuals returning to education after work or military service. 

Investigate each university's admission requirements to find a fit that suits your circumstances.

Here are the top 10 highest paying jobs for Criminal Justice Degree Holders in the US, check it out.

Cost of an Online Criminal Justice Degree

Understanding the cost of your online criminal justice degree is imperative. Tuition rates per credit can vary significantly, along with additional fees for technology, transcripts, and graduation. 

Calculate the total cost of the program based on credit requirements and tuition rates. Consider whether you can transfer credits from previous college courses to reduce costs. Look for universities that offer trial periods or tuition locks to ensure affordability throughout your education journey.

If you are a working class applicant, ask your organisation if they have a scholarship scheme that can help you with tuition for the Online Criminal Justice Degree program you are about to undertake.

Financial Aid from Universities

When evaluating online criminal justice degree programs, it's essential to consider the financial aid options offered by the universities themselves. 

Look beyond student loans and investigate the average amount of institutional aid provided by each institution. This aid can significantly impact your overall tuition costs. 

Some universities offer progress scholarships or grants to keep you motivated throughout your degree program. Additionally, inquire about tuition lock options that ensure your costs remain consistent throughout your education.

Criminal Justice Degree Format

Online criminal justice degree programs come in various formats, each catering to different learning preferences and schedules. Short accelerated terms, traditional school terms, and self-paced formats are common options. 

To check out the Course Format for UPNG Law School, click here. 

Short accelerated terms, usually five to six weeks long, offer swift progression through courses. 

Traditional terms resemble the typical college experience, with eight to twelve-week terms. 

Self-paced formats allow you to complete courses at your own speed, accommodating busy schedules. Consider which format aligns best with your learning style and commitments.

Final thoughts...

Selecting the right online criminal justice degree program requires thoughtful consideration of multiple factors. 

Remember that your education's impact extends beyond your degree; it influences your future career and personal growth. Use the resources available to you, such as university websites and guides, to gather comprehensive information as you embark on this exciting educational journey.

US News Law School Ranking 2024: Analyzing the Top 10 and Changes in Methodology

The release of the annual U.S. News Law School Ranking is a significant event in the legal education landscape, eagerly awaited by aspiring law students, educators, and legal professionals. The ranking provides valuable insights into the perceived prestige and quality of law schools across the United States. 

In 2024, the U.S. News Law School Ranking saw some notable changes in methodology and shifts in the rankings, shedding light on the evolving landscape of legal education. 

In this article, we list the top 10 law schools according to the 2024 ranking, explore the key changes in the methodology, and discuss the pros and cons of using rankings to make informed decisions about law school choices.

US News Law School Ranking 2024 - thomas jefferson school of law ranking

Click here to read about How to Apply Criminal Justice Programs in the US

The Top 10 Law Schools in the U.S. According to the U.S. News Law School Ranking 2024

The U.S. News Law School Ranking for 2024 brought forward a dynamic and competitive list of law schools, revealing both familiar names and some surprising changes. 

The top 10 law schools according to the 2024 ranking are as follows:

1. Stanford University (Tied for 1st)

2. Yale University (Tied for 1st)

3. University of Chicago

4. University of Pennsylvania (UPenn)

5. Harvard University (Tied for 5th)

6. New York University (NYU) (Tied for 5th)

7. Duke University (Tied for 5th)

8. Columbia University (Tied for 8th)

9. University of Virginia (Tied for 8th)

10. University of California—Berkeley (Tied for 10th)

    Northwestern University (Tied for 10th)

    University of Michigan—Ann Arbor (Tied for 10th)

These rankings reflect a notable shift from previous years, with Columbia University experiencing the most significant drop from the top 5 to number 8. 

On the other hand, Duke University made a remarkable leap from number 11 to number 5, showcasing the dynamic nature of law school rankings.

Changes in Methodology for 2024

The 2024 U.S. News Law School Ranking introduced substantial changes to its methodology, resulting in a more consolidated ranking with increased emphasis on certain metrics. Noteworthy changes include:

1. Student Outcomes Metric:

The weight assigned to student outcomes increased from 26% to a substantial 58%. This metric encompasses employment 10 months after graduation and first-time bar passage rates, highlighting the importance of practical success for graduates.

2. Quality Assessment:

The quality assessment, which includes peer assessment and assessments from lawyers and judges, saw a decrease in weight from 40% to 25% of a school's rank.

3. Student Selectivity:

The metric evaluating LSAT scores, GPA, and acceptance rates dropped from 21% to 10% in the ranking calculation.

4. Resources Metric:

The resources metric, encompassing student-faculty ratio and student librarian ratio, saw a reduction in weight from 13% to 7%.

5. Expenditures and Financial Aid:

Expenditures per student and financial aid per student were eliminated from the ranking entirely.

These changes reflect a shift towards prioritizing practical outcomes and a reconsideration of factors like peer assessment in the ranking calculation. The increased focus on student outcomes underscores the importance of law schools in preparing graduates for the challenges of legal practice.

university of baltimore law school ranking george mason university law school ranking

Here are the top 10 highest paying jobs for Criminal Justice Degree Holders in the US, check it out.

Pros Choosing a Law School Based on Rankings:

  • Initial Prestige: Higher-ranked law schools often have a strong reputation and may offer enhanced networking opportunities and potential career advantages.
  • Resources and Opportunities: Higher-ranked schools tend to have more resources, leading to better facilities, faculty, and opportunities for experiential learning.
  • Employment Prospects: A higher-ranking law school may provide better access to legal job placements and higher starting salaries.

Cons of Choosing a Law School Based on Rankings:

  • Limited Focus: Rankings may not consider a school's specific programs, faculty expertise, or specialties, which might be crucial for a student's career goals.
  • Inflated Focus on Rank: Overemphasis on rankings may divert attention from factors such as financial aid, location, and practical experience.
  • Fluctuating Nature: Rankings can change drastically from year to year due to evolving methodologies, making long-term decisions based solely on rankings risky.

US News Law School Ranking 2024

The U.S. News Law School Ranking for 2024 offers a comprehensive overview of the top law schools in the United States and the evolving landscape of legal education. 

With changes in methodology emphasizing student outcomes and practical success, aspiring law students must recognize the limitations and benefits of relying solely on rankings. While rankings provide a snapshot of a law school's perceived prestige, they should be just one among many factors considered when making decisions about legal education. 

Importantly, the pursuit of legal education should align with personal values, career ambitions, and the desire to make a positive impact on the legal profession.

Highest Paying Jobs for Criminal Justice Degree Holders in the US

For those pursuing a criminal justice degree, the job market offers a diverse range of high-paying opportunities. From crime investigation to border security, this guide explores the top ten highest paying jobs for criminal justice graduates, offering insights into each role's responsibilities and average salaries.

Note that this is a general guide (based on earnings in US Dollars). 

Highest Paying Jobs for Criminal Justice Degree Holders in the US

Job #10: Probation Officer

Average Salary: Over $76,000

Probation officers play a vital role in rehabilitating law offenders, designing rehabilitation plans, and aiding their transition back into society.

Job #9: Homeland Security Professional

Average Salary: Over $77,000

Homeland security professionals protect the country from threats, specializing in various aspects of national security.

Job #8: Border Patrol Agent

Average Salary: Over $81,000

Border patrol agents safeguard national borders, ensuring the legality of crossings and preventing illegal activities.

Job #7: Deportation Officer

Average Salary: Over $86,000

Deportation officers handle the process of locating and deporting individuals living in a country illegally.

Highest Paying Jobs for Criminal Justice Degree Holders in the US

Job #6: Prison Warden

Average Salary: Over $87,000

Prison wardens manage and oversee prison operations, ensuring safety, security, and adherence to regulations.

Job #5: Drug Enforcement Administration Agent (DEA Agent)

Average Salary: Over $88,000

DEA agents combat drug trafficking and enforce drug-related laws, focusing on eradicating illegal drug activities.

Job #4: Computer Forensic Specialist

Average Salary: Over $92,000

Computer forensic specialists extract digital evidence, aiding in criminal investigations related to cybercrimes.

Job #3: Federal Air Marshal

Average Salary: Over $99,000

Federal air marshals work with the TSA to ensure the safety of public flying, protecting against potential threats.

Job #2: Criminal Investigator

Average Salary: Just under $100,000

Criminal investigators gather evidence, analyze data, and work towards solving various crimes, making significant contributions to the justice system.

Job #1: United States Secret Service Agent

Average Salary: Over $137,000

Secret Service agents provide protection to high-level officials, investigate fraud and counterfeiting, and play a crucial role in maintaining national security.


With a criminal justice degree, you can enter a wide array of high-paying professions that contribute to society's safety and security. 

Each role offers unique challenges and opportunities for personal and professional growth, making the field of criminal justice a compelling and rewarding career path.

How to do a business degree online classes in Australia while working

Pursuing a business degree online while working can be a challenging but rewarding experience. Online classes provide the flexibility to attend classes at any time, making it possible to work and study simultaneously. 

In Australia, there are many universities and colleges that offer online business degrees, making it easy to find a program that suits your needs. In this article, we will discuss the benefits, challenges, and tips for studying for a business degree online while working in Australia.

business degree online classes

Benefits of studying for a business degree online

One of the main benefits of studying for a business degree online is the flexibility it provides. With online classes, you can attend classes at any time, which means you can schedule your classes around your work schedule. 

This is particularly beneficial for working professionals who may not have the time to attend traditional classes during the day. Additionally, studying online also allows you to study from anywhere, which means you can continue to work and study even if you need to relocate.

Another benefit of studying for a business degree online is the cost. Online classes are typically more affordable than traditional classes, making it a more cost-effective option for working professionals. 

Also, online classes usually have fewer overhead costs, which means universities can pass on the savings to students.

Challenges of doing a business degree online while working

Studying for a business degree online while working also poses some challenges. One of the main challenges is balancing work and study. It can be difficult to find the time to attend classes and complete assignments while working full-time. 

Also, studying online can be isolating, as you may not have the same social interactions as you would in a traditional classroom setting.

To overcome these challenges, it is important to set realistic goals and create a schedule that works for you. Prioritizing your time and managing your workload is crucial to ensuring that you can successfully balance work and study. It is also important to stay organized and keep track of deadlines and assignments to ensure that you do not fall behind.

Another important aspect of studying a business degree online is staying motivated. Online classes can be self-paced, which means you need to be self-motivated to complete your coursework. 

To stay motivated, set specific goals for yourself, and reward yourself when you achieve them. Additionally, it's important to stay connected with other students and your professors, as this can help keep you engaged and motivated.

10 universities offering business degree online classes in Australia in 2023

  1. Monash University
  2. University of Queensland
  3. Deakin University
  4. University of South Australia
  5. RMIT University
  6. Curtin University
  7. University of New South Wales
  8. Swinburne University of Technology
  9. The University of Technology Sydney
  10. Griffith University

Please note that this list is not exhaustive and there are many other universities in Australia that offer online business degrees as well. 

Some universities may have different names for their online business courses, but they offer the same curriculum and degree as traditional on-campus classes. It is always recommended to check the universities' websites or contact the universities to confirm the availability of the online business degree.

Do a business degree online classes in Australia while working

In conclusion, studying for a business degree online while working in Australia can be challenging but also rewarding. With the flexibility and cost-effectiveness of online classes, it is a great option for working professionals. 

By setting realistic goals, creating a schedule, and staying motivated, you can successfully balance work and study and achieve your degree.

LSAT Results and Law School Admission 2023

The Law School Admission Council (LSAT) has said that the application for entry into the 2023 and 2024 academic years has been competitive. Law schools in the US and Canada are going to have a difficult time admitting aspiring lawyers.

Law School Admission Test 2023

Year-over-year law school applications

There was a 13% increase in the number of applicants last year. 

According to LSAT, this was the 

''largest year-over-year increase in law school applications since 2002. Not only was the increase in applications immense, but the number of applicants with LSAT scores in the 175 to 180 band grew as well, from 732 last year to 1,487 this time around''.

LSAT Results and Law School Admission Increase

For the first time since 2002, Law schools in the US will experience a high enrollment of students, students with high LSAT test scores. 

“This was the cycle that surprised everyone,” said Mike Spivey of Spivey Consulting, whose firm assists clients in the law school admissions process. “In some cycles, applicants are surprised. In some cycles, law schools are surprised. But no one was able to anticipate the incredible spike of high LSAT scores.”

More Intelligent students doing LSAT 2023

The increase in the number of high LSAT scores can be attributed to a high number of intelligent students wanting to do law.

The Law School Admission Council has said that their data show aspiring law students had more time to study for the admissions test during the pandemic. And their efforts are yielding higher scores. 

 Read more about LSAT, the body that conducts the August 2023 remote admission tests

LSAT online tutors on remote LSATs

LSAT online tutors also noted that due to the change in 2023 LSAT Writing tests, the LSAT is done remotely, both Part A Multiple Choice and Part B Essays. 

The test takers do the test in their own homes and are less stressful and more manageable than a longer exam taken at a testing centre.

The change could have had a better effect on the students' LSAT results this year, 2023. The remote LSAT test is going to remain until June 2024. 

Spivey predicts that the law schools in the US are going to go through a tough time deciding who to admit into the academic years 2023 and 2024. 

“You’re going to see a competitive cycle early on,” he said. “And I think schools are going to go incredibly slowly in admit decision-making. They got burned this year.”

Read more about the Law School Admission Test, LSAT.

Introduction to PNG Law School Program: Law Degree, Masters, Diploma Info

The information below is extracted from the Law Schools Introduction in 2004 and published on Contact the Law School Directly for the latest law degree program updates. The Law degree programs are re-published here for general information only. 

Check out this article: How to Apply for an Online Criminal Justice Bachelor Degree Course in Australia


Contact hour for all courses is 4 hours unless indicated otherwise for particular courses. Where course descriptions do not contain prerequisites, texts, assessment information, and names of the course lecturer, these will be supplied at the commencement of the semester in the course outline for each course. 

Currently, the School has two Strands or Disciplines. They are the Law Strand and the Legal Clinical Programs (LCP) Strand

  • The Law Strand is responsible for the teaching of substantive Law courses and programs 
  • The LCP Strand is responsible for the teaching, development and administration of procedural and applied legal courses and programs, like the Diploma in Law (Prosecutions) (DLP) program. 

However, both strands are responsible for teaching all courses in the LL.B degree and the LL.M (part course work and thesis) degree. Supervision for the PhD is also the School's responsibility in conjunction with the Centre for Research and Post-Graduate Studies.

Being the only Law School in the country, the School has graduated the majority of lawyers practising in Papua New Guinea. There is also a significant number of lawyers practising in the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu who have graduated from Law School.


The program is spread over a four-year period. Students must complete 37 courses with an aggregate GPA of 1.50 to be awarded a degree. The compulsory courses cover both substantive and procedural aspects of the law. 

During the final year of study, all students are required to complete and submit a Major Research Paper of up to 20,000 words, where which is designed to expose students to write up a topic after conducting individual research with minimal supervision by a staff supervisor. 

The optional or elective units are usually law options. However, students are encouraged to take up to three non-law courses from other Schools in accordance with the spirit of the now implemented University restructure.


The Law School has adopted a system of classifying the LL.B degree. A student who has obtained good grades throughout the study program will be awarded an Honours degree at the completion of her or his LL.B studies in the following classes:
  • First Class Honours GPA 3.75 + (GPA)
  • Second Class Honours (Division 1) 2.75 -3.74
  • Second Class Honours (Division 2) 2.00 -2.74
  • Pass (D average) 1.50 -1.99


This diploma targets people in the workforce handling work that involves investigations, compliance monitoring and enforcement, prosecution and such work that involves the application of the law. 

Policemen, investigators, judicial staff, health inspectors and others are the targeted group.

Entry requirements

Generally, applicants are expected to be working in the above-stated work environment and must have matriculated with a GPA of 2.75.

Program of Study The program is usually spread over a period of two years. To be eligible to graduate, a candidate must complete seven compulsory law courses; two options in the LL.B program and the requisite Enrichment Studies course offered in the first year.


The Master of Laws Program is open to a person with an honours degree in law, or a person who has been admitted to practice law as a Barrister and Solicitor and who has appropriate degrees or professional qualifications.

The LL.M degree can either be by thesis only or part thesis and course work.

PNG Faculty of Law Course Descriptions



This course is designed as a general introduction to legal studies. The following topics will be considered: The role and nature of customary adjudication; the official legal system and its historical background; the nature of the common law and judicial process; the legislative process and the judicial interpretation of statutes; the adoption of the law in PNG; lawyers and legal services.

Contact Hours: 4 hours per week.


This course covers the general principles of constitutional laws and is concerned with the structure and basic concepts of a wide range of constitutions. The approach is comparative using examples from many countries around the world including an emphasis on the constitutions of the countries of the Pacific Region. 

The topic covered include: 

  • The definition of a constitution, its purpose and characteristics, classifying the constitution, choices in constitution-making; 
  • evolution of constitutional government; 
  • the rule of law; Human rights; Constitutionalism; 
  • Principle Institutions of government; 
  • Institutions and procedures of major constitutional government; 
  • the doctrine of separation of powers; 
  • the doctrine of sovereignty; 
  • delegated legislation and
  • interpretation of Constitutional laws. 
The structure and basic concept of the PNG Constitution much of which were adopted from the Constitutional Planning Committee (CPC) reports and recommendations are also studied in this course. 

The hierarchy of laws, State policy and main features of the state in PNG; major institutions of government; Accountability of major institutions of government. Human rights and freedoms; States of emergency; Enforcement of the constitution; Amendment and review of the constitution; Judicial interpretation of the constitution and overview of the operation of the constitution.

Contact Hours: 4 hours per week.


An introduction to the history of the development of contract law and the context within which it operates in modern PNG. It covers the study of the principles underlying the law of contract in all its aspects including an examination of the following topics: 

  • The formation of contracts encompassing the phenomenon of agreement, consideration and contractual intention; 
  • the form of contracts and the contents of a contract and will intrude oral and written contracts; the parole evidence rule; 
  • exceptions to the parole evidence rule, representation; 
  • collateral contracts and implied terms; exclusion clauses; 
  • capacity to contract and 
  • the doctrine of privity. 
A detailed study of the principles relating to interpretations of contracts and in particular as to who can enforce contracts and against whom. 

This part of the course includes the following topics:- misrepresentation; duress; undue influence and unconscionable contracts; illegal contracts and contracts that are contrary to public policy; termination of contracts; and remedies available for breaches of contract.


This course covers the history of the criminal legislation of PNG its interpretation, and other introductory matters such as the role of custom as a component of the underlying law as an introduction and a detailed study of the general principles of criminal responsibility in Papua New Guinea, with particular reference to the Criminal Code and the defences under the Criminal Code. 

It also gives a detailed study of the main criminal offences in Papua New Guinea. These include homicide, sexual offences, property offences, and drug offences. The issue of criminal attempts is also examined.

Contact Hours: 4 hours per week.

5.20708 LAW OF TORTS I

This course is a study of laws dealing with violations of certain privacy rights, causing damage or loss, and entitling the victim to seek redress or compensation. Topics in this segment will cover: 

  • purpose and function of tort law in contemporary society; 
  • impact of insurance; 
  • intentional wrongs against person and property including defences; and 
  • negligence - duty of care; breach of duty; damage and remoteness.

Contact Hours: 4 hours per week.


This course is concerned with three aspects of Commercial Law. These aspects are the sale of goods, hire-purchase and agency.

This course covers

  • Banking Law and Practice - which includes a discussion of types of banks and their roles, the banker/customer relationship, the duty of banker to third parties, the operation of trust accounts, and rules relating to cheques;
  • Negotiable Instruments - which examines bills and promissory notes, and rights and liabilities under an instrument;
  • Insurance Law - which examines the classes and types of insurance policies including a discussion of professional indemnity, the nature of a contract of insurance, the principles governing a contract of insurance, in particular, the requirement of insurable interest and the doctrine of disclosure, the principles of indemnity and subrogation, and agency in insurance;
  • Insolvency Law - deals with the object of insolvency, acts of insolvency, adjudication proceedings, proof of debts, the role and duties of a receiver, and liquidation of business associations. 

Contact Hours: 4 hours per week.


The principal objective of this course is to discuss the doctrinal or jurisprudential basis of alienated or non-customary land in PNG. It begins with a consideration of the historical development of mainly English concepts of land tenure and estates and the colonial instruments and processes which facilitated their introduction into PNG. 

However, although there are two categories of alienated land, namely Government and privately owned freehold land, consideration of the relevant legal principles and concepts as are applicable in the country are limited to the latter. 

The course covers fundamental principles and conceptions of land such as its definition and what legal interests and estates can be attached to or created over land. It discusses the doctrines of tenure and estate, the creation and determination of co-ownership interests over land, private licenses, leases and tenancies, mortgages and land registration. 

It is also more problem-solving oriented and to a large extent emphasises the language and concepts of property law. Policy issues of land tenure in this country will feature less in this course. 

Naturally, students of law are expected to approach the course with an analytical and critical mind so that, where appropriate, possible reforms of the current law are considered.

Contact Hours: 4 hours per week.


The following topics are discussed in this course:  

  • the philosophy of law and the schools of jurisprudence; 
  • the nature and definition of law; 
  • the relationship between law and justice; 
  • analysis of some fundamental legal concepts and some typical methods of legal reasoning; 
  • analysis of the judicial method. 
In particular, this unit will explore the nature and role of law in a developing country such as PNG. 

Contact Hours: 4 hours per week.


The course covers a wide range of topics generally dealing with the use of evidence in civil and criminal proceedings. 

In particular, it is concerned with such things as: 

  • the sources of the law of evidence in PNG; 
  • the basis for the common law rules of evidence in the adversarial system of justice; 
  • the different kinds of evidence used to establish facts in courts; 
  • the ways in which evidence is taken in Court by way of examination in chief, cross-examination, and reexamination, and includes discussions on the use of documentary and affidavit evidence; 
  • the rules as to competence and compellability of witnesses; 
  • the burden of proof, the standard of proof and the needs for corroboration, accomplice evidence, privilege evidence and 
  • public interest immunity, spouse evidence and exclusionary rules.
Contact Hours: 4 hours per week.


A study of Civil Procedure and Remedies in accordance with the National Court Rules. Topics covered include: 

  • The relevant legislation guiding the civil process including the District Court Act and National Act and Rules; 
  • Orders 3 to 17, the procedure to follow when commencing a civil claim in both District Court and National Court; 
  • by Writ and Originating Summons, pleadings;
  • service, interlocutory process, including consideration of interlocutory applications, injunctions, discovery, interrogatories, admissions, default judgements, summary judgements and striking out, Trial without pleadings, Judgements and Orders; 
  • Appeal and Judicial Review.

Contact Hours: 4 hours per week. Prerequisite: 5.20708; 5.20711; 5.10701


This is a year-long compulsory course taken in the final year of the LLB Program. The objective of the Research Paper is to develop in students a capacity to conduct research on a topic of one's choice and to write up on the chosen topic. 

In doing so, the student must be able to isolate the issues, or problems of the study, seek and assemble relevant material, analyze this material in terms of the issues identified, and marshall the material around the issues identified. 

Students have the option of choosing their topics of inquiry or selecting one from a list that will be made available at the beginning of the academic year. Contact hours: 4 hours per week.



The topics covered in this course include: 

  • origin, nature and sources of international law; the interaction between international law and municipal law; codification of International law; 
  • statehood and sovereignty; international and state practice relating to the recognition of states and governments, legal nature of territory of states; legal status of mandated and trust territories; 
  • United Nations and international peace and security; 
  • rules relating to disarmament; universal and regional attitudes to human rights; 
  • issues in treaty - making; status of air space and outer space; 
  • concepts of the territorial sea; contiguous zone; regimes or innocent passage in territorial sea and transit passage in straits; 
  • doctrine of the continental shelf; 
  • freedom of the high seas; 
  • hot pursuit; and 
  • diplomatic and consular immunities.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


The course presents an analysis of criminal deviance, examining theories of its genesis, social definition, maintenance, control and social consequences. This course is intended to give the student an opportunity to examine major theoretical and methodological issues in the study of crime and crime control. 

Extensive reading will be an important part of the course because students will have to venture into a variety of branches of knowledge. It gives the students the benefit of understanding why the criminal justice system works with all agencies of entrusted to another criminal justice.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


This course involves a study of the law governing the relationship between employer and employee ie. the contract of employment; the implied terms and conditions governing the employment relationship; the law governing trade unions in PNG; Occupational Health and Safety at work and workers' compensation.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


The theory of inheritance; juridical basis of succession, the mechanics of property distribution - testate and interstate succession, probate law, family provisions and construction of will and revocation are covered in this course. 

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


The aim of the course is to expose the student to as much knowledge as possible about the legal rules, principles and institutions that govern international economic relations. 

In particular, the course attempts to expose the roots of those rules, principles and institutions in the particular character of the system of international production and exchange, the international monetary system, international payment system and the place of PNG within that system. 

An introductory analysis of the development of international trade and investment is followed by a study of: the legal structure of international trade GATT, WTO (post Uruguay Round), UNCTAD, regional economic groupings, commodity agreements, etc.; legal regulation of international finance and investment and the major players including the IMF and IBRD, etc.; and trans-national corporate strategy.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


The principal objective of the course is to introduce students to the basic legal concepts, principles and rules that govern the utilisation, management and sustainable use of national and shared stocks of Natural resources, particularly in the following areas; Fisheries, Forestry, Land, Water and Mining and Petroleum. 

A brief examination of various international and regional treaties/conventions regarding the use and management of natural resources will also be made to ensure that students appreciate the degree of harmonisation of the rules, particularly when exploiting the natural resources within the Exclusive Fisheries Zone/Exclusive Economic Zone and the High Seas.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


This course involves a study of the following topics: 

  • What are human rights: How can they be protected by international law? 
  • The present law and practice. 
  • United Nations Covenants. 
  • Why do human rights activities concentrate on civil, political economic and social rights? 
  • What are the enforcement and remedial mechanisms at international and domestic levels? 
Particular attention will be paid to the Constitutional provisions and a study of how case can have evolved. One or more of the following case studies: 
  • Disappearances: their demography, causes, significance and control. 
  • Rights to work and organise. The International Labour Organisation. 
  • Racism: Its significance and international control. 
  • Mercenaries: Their use against and significance for small nations. 
  • The role of nongovernmental organisations. 
  • Is there a balance to be struck between human rights and economic development?
  •  What has this to do with PNG?

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


Where a foreign element (such as nationality, place of an accident) is involved in private law cases, conflicts of jurisdiction and questions as to the applicability of the foreign law may be involved. The course examines the basic principles of Private International Law including recognition of foreign judgments, and internal conflicts within PNG, that is, conflicts between customary laws and the imported law.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


The course is aimed at exposing students to theories and practical issues in international finance and investment law. 

The areas that are covered include legal issues relevant to financing import and export in the area of international trade, financing aspect in international commercial transaction law, letters of credit, transfer pricing and other corporate financing issues. 

The other component of the course looks at international investment law areas such as foreign direct investment, investment by multi-Corporations, investments by virtue of acquisition of shares or total purchase of ownership rights on businesses off-shore. Various legislations in PNG are also looked at as PNG is becoming part of the global market in investment activities.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


This course provides an understanding of the basic concepts, principles, rules and procedures of modern company law. 

In particular, students are exposed to the concepts of corporate personality and limited liability, the rules governing the raising and maintenance of capital and the legal duties imposed on company officials, especially directors, in the course of managing the company's affairs and business. 

The Companies Act 1997 are studied in detail especially the statutory requirements stipulated thereunder, including financial reporting, disclosure, the role of the Registrar and liquidation and winding up. 

It is expected that at the end of the course the students will have acquired sufficient knowledge to enable him/her, inter alia to incorporate a company, to provide legal advice on the various aspects of company management and administration, and identify and solve problems encountered in this area of the law. 

Secondly, to provide an understanding of the main principles and the law of partnership and draw a distinction between Company Law and Partnership Law.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


This course covers a number of topics in industrial and intellectual property. The industrial property part will look at patents, trademarks and names. In the intellectual property part, the topics that will be covered include copyright and breach of confidence. 

There is no patent legislation in PNG. Patent law in other countries is entirely legislation based. In the course, a brief survey of legislation in relevant jurisdictions is briefly examined before examining the pros and cons of having or not having a patent law that will require an examination of the broader policy considerations. 

There is no copyright legislation in force in PNG (the Copyright Act 1978 has not been brought into force yet) and its treatment in the course is similar to the treatment of patent law. There is, however, a detailed examination of whether there could be copyright in PNG under the common law by virtue of the adoption by the Constitution of the common law and equity principles. 

The part on trademarks and names looks at legislation while that on breach of confidence will involve the examination of the common law rules on the treatment of confidential information as property.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


This course is offered only to candidates for the Bachelor of Commerce and Bachelor of Economics as a supplementary to the core course in their respective programs. 

The course is designed to provide an understanding of the legal principles and rules pertinent to a modern company. Particular emphasis will be placed on the concepts of legal personality, the attributes of corporate personality, limited liability, the raising and maintenance of capital, and the legal duties of directors, auditors and of other company officers.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


This course is a continuation from 5.10703 Contracts Law I. where in this half of the course, the following principles of contract law will be covered: vitiating factors, illegal contracts, discharge of contracts and remedies for breaching contracts.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week


This course is designed to introduce students to the basic principles of customary law and the rules for the recognition and application of customs in the legal system. 

It focuses specifically on problems of the internal conflict of laws. Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


This course comprises two components, Principles of Equity and Trust. 

1. Principles of Equity: In this component, the history, nature and principles of equity are examined. The relationship between equity and law is investigated. Equity's function as a corrective device to the law is emphasised. 

The course draws on relevant case law to illustrate and demonstrate the relevance and application of the principles of equity in the dispensation of justice. Case law is invoked to demonstrate the adaptability of equity to confront current circumstances. The reception of equity into the "corpus juris" of Papua New Guinea is discussed. 

2. Trust: In this component, the institution of trust is examined. Trusts are primarily about the preservation of wealth. It is a fiduciary relationship with respect to the property, subjecting the person by whom the property is held to equitable duties to deal with the property for the benefit of another person, which arises as a result of a manifestation to create it. 

Candidates are introduced to the institution of trust, its practical application and the legal principles that govern trusts to a level enabling its application in practice environment.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


This course aims to teach proper and acceptable legal writing skills, and at the same time equipping students with the appropriate legal research skills using law websites on the w.w.w. and available legal information packed c.d roms such as Access to Law, and PNGinLaw.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


This course is a continuation of 5.20708 and examines the doctrine of strict liability; nuisance; occupiers liability; product's liability; employer's liability; defamation and other emerging torts including invasion of privacy, domestic and economic relations and abuse of legal process.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


This course introduces students to the Criminal Justice System of PNG. The course begins by introducing students to the various constitutional and legislative provisions which shape the Criminal Justice System as they relate to a defendant from arrest through to conviction, sentence and appeal. 

Although some time will be spent on the philosophical, historical and comparative aspects of the justice system, the primary focus of the course is on the criminal practice and procedure.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


This course is basically a historical analysis of land tenure and land policy in PNG. Customary land law is considered, in particular, the different ways in which customary land rights are created and transferred as well as the constraints which customary land law and tenure are said to place on development. 

Reforms to customary land law and tenure are covered and the land mobilisation program. There has been a proposal to the registration of customary land which is also part of the ongoing Land Mobilisation program. Other aspects of this course include state land; government leases; freehold land and government controls over land dealings.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.

5.20713 FAMILY LAW

Family Law is a compulsory course [emphasis added] for the LLB degree and is currently offered to second, third and fourth-year law students. First-year students are not eligible to take this course. 

The family unit, however formed, is an important social institution in and an integral part of society as a whole. It is also a legal unit in respect of which the state also has an interest. Different systems of family law apply in our country. The legal regulation of family relations is subject to either customary law or the introduced law. 

The course studies family law in its social setting and is especially concerned with the interaction between Western and customary conceptions and notions of family, marriage, breakdown of marriage such as desertion, nullity of marriage and its consequences including, in particular, those relating to custody of children and maintenance. 

The course also considers the important issue of adoption both under custom and the introduced law. Most of the present laws have a foreign orientation and as such students will be expected to approach them with a critical attitude and to also consider them as the country continues to develop and change.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


This is a skills-based course and is largely procedural in nature, in that it aims to equip students with the actual process and procedure in effecting prosecution of a crime that is transnational in nature. 

The course covers all aspects of international cooperation, extradition and mutual assistance and introduces and students to the actual process and procedures between countries - i.e between PNG and the other countries with which PNG has entered bilateral, and multilateral arrangements.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


This course covers the historical outline of administrative law; study of the administrative process of executive and independent regulatory bodies; delegated legislation; the doctrine of ultra vires; principles of natural justice; judicial review; judicial and extra-judicial remedies. The course basically deals with the legal control of activity by government and public authorities from the point of view of the statutory and common law.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


This is a year-long compulsory course taken in the final year of the LLB Program. The objective of the Research Paper is to develop in students a capacity to conduct research on a topic of one's choice and to write up on the chosen topic. 

In doing so, the student must be able to isolate the issues, or problems of the study, seek and assemble relevant material, analyze this material in terms of the issues identified, and marshall the material around the issues identified. 

Students have the option of choosing their topics of inquiry or selecting one from a list that will be made available at the beginning of the academic year.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


This course is designed to give students an introduction to the basic principles and skills involved in legislative drafting. Topics covered include: legislative research techniques; preparation of instructions for legislative draftsmen; drafting of legislation; and the parliamentary process.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.

5.30720 WOMEN & THE LAW

This course is concerned with the legal status of women in PNG. Analysis of women's rights and duties under constitutional law, statutory law, is undertaken. 

An evaluation of law reform will be considered. Specific areas that are covered include: Constitutional provisions; concerns of equal opportunity and discrimination in employment law; family law; property and succession; population and fertility control; regulation of sexual conduct; and education.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


This course is designed for non-law candidates. It is intended to enable candidates to appreciate the practical application of the law of contract in a modern business/commercial setting. Topics include the formation of contracts, contents of contracts, vitiating factors and remedies for breach of contracts. Subsidiary topics include the sale of goods, agency and employment contracts.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


This course is offered as one of the compulsory law courses for the LLB students in their undergraduate program. It is also offered to other disciplines as one of the enrichment courses. 

One of the objectives of UPNG through the Law School is to meet the practical needs of the society from time to time rather than to conform to the teaching of its traditional law courses. The Constitutional Amendment No.16 of 1995 giving effect to the adoption of the new 

Organic Law on Provincial and Local-level Governments repealing the old Organic Law on Provincial Governments, in turn, gave birth to the provincial reform system throughout PNG in 1995. 

That subsequently warranted the Law School to introduce this course. The main aim of this course is to train the upcoming young lawyers and others who have been admitted into the LLB program to deal with some of those issues in their legal engagements upon going through the University education process. 

Quite a substantive time is also taken in covering issues relating to intergovernmental organization, the idea of decentralization, which embraces distribution of powers & functions at all levels of the governments in their pursuit of providing basic goods and services to the people at the doorsteps; a primary purpose for which the provincial reform system had been introduced in PNG.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


The course aims to introduce to students the important issues underlying environmental law and policy, both in terms of legal analysis and policy-oriented perspective. 

It focuses on highlighting ecological concepts and principles, environmental problems such as pollution and environmental degradation, by discussing various nature and modes of protection and preservation of air, land, water and the marine environment. 

The course also covers legal aspects of environmental protection and administrative frameworks relating to 

  • the protection and conservation of the environment, 
  • enforcement of rights and remedies available to aggrieved party or parties by examining various legislations, example of which are as follows; 
  • Environmental Planning Act; 
  • Environmental Contaminants Act; 
  • Conservation Areas Act; 
  • Fauna (Protection and Control) Act; 
  • Dumping of wastes at sea Act; and 
  • water Resources Act. 
Examples of international agreements, treaties, legislation and cases will also be included to broaden understanding of students taking the course.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


The principal aim of this course is to provide students with a thorough working knowledge of the laws which govern mining and petroleum activities in PNG. 

Since these laws are developed to operate within a certain socio-economic framework, the discussion of the legal rules and principles focuses too on the political and economic forces which shape the law.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


The course covers the following areas with particular reference to United Nations Law of the Sea Convention 1982, regional and bilateral arrangements with an emphasis on international, regional and national practice: 

  • The delimitation of maritime boundaries; 
  • the concept of the territorial sea; 
  • contiguous zone; continental shelf; 
  • Exclusive Economic Zone/Exclusive Fisheries Zone; 
  • legal regimes of islands; bays and gulfs; 
  • archipelagoes and 
  • the legal status of the High Seas. 
The course will also briefly examine Fishing, Rights of Navigation, international arrangement applicable to the mining of deep-seabed; military uses of the sea and disputes settlement regime and procedures. 

By the end of the course, students will be able to understand and appreciate various rights, duties and obligations of both coastal and land-locked states within various zones of the sea inclusive of the international sea-bed area and the high seas.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


This course looks at alternate ways of resolving disputes. Going to court is not the only way to solve disputes affecting business or personal relationships of individuals, groups, or communities at large. 

This course demonstrates to students there are different methods and processes currently used worldwide that can also be applied in PNG to settle differences, commercial disputes, contractual relationships which are not working and other issues that affect lives of businesses and people. 

Such issues can be amicably resolved without the need to go to Court. The course also exposes students to the current legislation which are in place in PNG that promote alternative dispute resolution and discussions in the course is further aimed at ensuring that the students are equipped well in this area of resolving legal disputes and even other issues that could affect the relationship and lives of the people living the communities.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


Until recently, the teaching of the law relating to business organisations in PNG has evidently been focused on registered companies and partnerships. 

Yet there are other legal forms of business organisation, for example, the Business Group and the Statutory/Government Corporation which are playing increasingly important roles in the economic life and development of PNG and which deserve detailed study and analysis. In addition to business groups and statutory/government corporations, the course covers land groups and co-operative societies. 

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


This course seeks to give a student a basic understanding of the principles of income taxation. Topics will include: 

  • Political and economic implications of income tax law; 
  • liability to taxation; 
  • nature of income; 
  • assessable income; 
  • the concept of taxable income; 
  • tax avoidance and 
  • income tax assessment procedures and administration. 
Students will also be provided with the necessary skills to use the Income Tax Act and other relevant tax statutes.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


The law relating to non-taxation revenues on the one hand and the government expenditure on the other hand is examined in this course. 

Particular attention is paid to the Constitutional and Parliamentary control of non-tax receipts and revenues. State relationships with international loan agencies will be examined. 

Central Government expenditure and the provincial government nexus together with the effect of the Leadership Code and the nature of international commissions, graft and kickbacks will be considered.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.


The course investigates the concept and purpose of International Humanitarian Law (IHL) as a branch of Public International Law. 

It examines the 

  • historical development of IHL, 
  • sources of contemporary sources of IHL,
  • fundamental distinction between Ius ad Bellum (Legality of the use of force ) and Ius in Bello (Humanitarian Rules to be respected in warfare),
  • fundamental distinction between civilians and combatants, combatants and prisoners of war, protection of wounded, sick and shipwrecked, the protection of civilians, conduct of hostilities. 
The law of Naval and Air warfare is discussed. Issues relating to the implementation of IHL will be demonstrated with reference to actual case studies.

Contact hours: 4 hours per week.

Students Final Note

For more information about studying law at the University of Papua New Guinea go to the UPNG School of Law web site



Latest on Vote of No Confidence in Papua New Guinea 2024

Latest on Vote of No Confidence in Papua New Guinea 2024