Showing posts with label SDGs2030. Show all posts
Showing posts with label SDGs2030. Show all posts

App to help LOs Report Illegal Logging on their Land

Lukim Gather, a phone application developed by Catalpa International will help PNG to monitor its protected areas. 

The new system will allow Rangers, who work in isolated areas, to quickly record and report harmful activities, such as illegal logging, bush fires and natural hazards.

This initiative rolled out by the Conservation Environment Protection Authority is possible through the support from UNDP through funding from Global Environment Facility.

Read about it here

Source: PNG UNDP

China Not a Development Partner But Loan Shark in PNG

WHICH DONORS CONTRIBUTE THE MOST TO PNG? While discussing 2020 Budget papers many members of NEC were surprised to find out just how much PNG receives from our donor partners. (Facebook/Kramer Report)

Note: This post was later retracted by the writer)

In 2020 PNG will receive close to K1 Billion in free development funds to assist us in our development goals.

Topping the list was Australia contributing K745m while China only contributes K7m
  • Australia K745.0 m (81%)  
  • European Union K80.0 m (8.7%) 
  • United Nations K41.7 m  
  • New Zealand K22.9 m
  • China K7.0m
  • USA K5.0 m 

In contrast when you look at it from how much we borrow, China tops the list on K450m. 
  • China K446.2 m 
  • ADB K437.6 m 
  • World Bank K185.50 m 
  • Japan K181.3 m 
  • India K7.7 m 
  • Australia K0.0 m 
Some countries are happy to lend us money where they benefit from the interest earned and conditional to their companies being awarded the contracts. Source National Planning Department 2020 Capital Investment Budget.

This piece of article is damning. Read here

Youth Participation: A Bridge to Opportunities - Nigel Akuani

Port Moresby: Real opportunities that benefit young people bring about effective youth participation.

Png youth inclusion sdg

This reflective statement was made by the Year-Eleven students of Jubilee Catholic Secondary during their talk on the topic ‘Youth Participation in Decision Making’ on TribeFM’s Chatroom program of Wednesday 13th November.

In their discussion the students dealt with a definition of the topic, its importance, factors affecting participation, importance of role models, recommendations and a call for the government to assist with the empowering of young people.

Jamieson Lalaga defined youth as a period of transition from the dependence of childhood to the independence of adulthood. He said that adults need to understand this. 
“This transition allows a young person’s consciousness, active participation, creativity, independence and ability to take responsibility for their actions. Effective youth participation is about creating opportunities for young people to be involved in influencing, shaping, designing and contributing to policy and the development of services and programs,” he said.

Ian Waho stressed the importance of youth participation in decision making and said it was essential for young people to contribute effectively and positively to society.

Solange Dawana spoke of the proper role models in society. 
“Youth involvement in decision making is lacking in Papua New Guinea because many young people today do not have someone positive to look up to,” she said. “In Papua New Guinea we tend to give the upper hand to the elders in our society because of our respect for them. To achieve cooperation, participation and workflow in society, young people have to be acknowledged and given the opportunity to act,” she added.

Felicianna Konga concluded the discussions recommending that the elders in society to provide pathways necessary for young people to contribute on matters. 
“They need to be given a chance to speak their minds, if not, they will tend to look for it elsewhere.  They will be going against adult supervision without a second thought as to whether their decisions are good or bad,” she said.

Chatroom’s next session on Wednesday 20th November will have Students of St Charles L’wanga Secondary and Specialists from UNICEF discuss the importance of the upcoming ‘International Children’s Day’.

What does it mean to be ranked 154/188 on the Human Development Index - PNG, Vanuatu, Fiji & Australia

UNDP, 2016


A Very Human High Development country with Human Development Index (HDI) value of 0.939 out of high of 1.0, Life Expectancy at Birth of 82.5 years, Expected Years of Schooling of 20.4 years, Mean School Years of 13.2 years, Gross National Income (GNI) per capita of $42,822 (International Currency) and GNI per capita minus HDI rank of 19. Of the 188 HDI ranking, Australia was ranked 3rd in 2014 and moved one place up to 2nd in 2015.


A High Human Development country. It has a HDI value of 0.736 out of a possible 1.0, Life Expectancy at Birth of 70.2 years, Expected Years of Schooling of 15.3 years, Expected Years of Schooling of 10.5 years, GNI per capita of $8,245 (International Currency) and GNI per capita minus HDI rank of 20. Fiji was ranked 91 in 2014 and remained at 91 in 2015 among the 188 countries.


Vanuatu is categorised as a Medium Human Development country. Vanuatu has HDI value of 0.597 out of a high of 1.0, Life Expectancy at Birth of 72.1 years, Expected Years of Schooling 10.8 years, Mean School Years of 6.8 years, GNI per capita of $2,805 (International Dollar) and GNI per capita minus HDI rank value of 23. Vanuatu ranked 134 in 2014 and remained unchanged at 134 out of the 188 countries on the HDI ranking.

Papua New Guinea

PNG was categorised as Low Human Development Country. PNG has HDI value of 0.516 out of a high of 1.0, Life Expectancy at Birth of 62.8 years, Expected Years of Schooling at 9.9 years, Mean Years of Schooling at 4.3 years, GNI per capita of $2,712 (International Currency) and GNI per capita minus HDI rank value of 4. PNG HDI rank was 153 in 2014 but fell 1 place to 154 in 2015 out of the 188 countries ranked.

Comparison - some similarities 

  1. Australia (VHHD), Fiji (HHD) and Vanuatu (MHD) have HDI value was near 0.6 or higher,
  2. Life Expectancy at Birth above 70 years where Fiji and Vanuatu’s Life Expectancy at Birth were 70.2 years and 72.1 years respectively. 
  3. Expected Years of Schooling for the three countries have an interval of 5 years with Australia at 20.4 years, Fiji at 15.3 years and Vanuatu at 10.8 years, 
  4. GNI per capita about $3,000 (Vanuatu = $2,802) or more 
  5. GNI per capita minus HDI rank value more approximately equal to 20. 
  6. Fiji and Vanuatu DHI ranks have remained the same in 2014 and 2015 at 91 and 134, respectively. Australia’s HDI rank improve from 3rd in 2014 to 2nd in 2015.

 Contrast - some differences 

  1. The difference between the Human Development Index (HDI) value of Australia and Fiji was 0.203 (0.939 – 0.736 = 0.203) and Australia and PNG was 0.423 (0.939 – 0.516 = 0.423) indicating a wide disparity between the VHHD – MDH and VHHD – LDH countries; 
  2. The difference between the Life Expectancy at Birth of Australia and Fiji was 12.3 years (82.5 – 70.2 = 12.3 years) and Australia and PNG was 19.7 years (82.5 – 62.8 = 19.7 years another example of identifying disparity between the VHHD – MDH and VHHD – LDH countries;
  3.  The difference between the Expected Years of Schooling in Australia and Fiji was 5.1 years (20.4 – 15.3 = 5.1 years) and Australia and PNG was 10.5 years (20.4 – 9.9 = 10.5 years)
  4. The difference between the Mean School Year in Australia and Fiji was 2.7 years (13.2 – 10.5 = 2. 7 years) and Australia and PNG was 8.9 years (13.2 – 4.3 = 6.2 years);
  5. The difference between the Gross National Income per capita in Australia and Fiji was $34,577 ($42,822 - $8,245 = $34,577) and Australia and PNG was $42 110 ($42,822 – 2,712 = $42,110) ; and 
  6. The difference between the GNI per capita minus HDI rank in Australia and Fiji was -1 (19 – 20 = -1, Fiji higher value than Australia) and Australia and PNG was 15 (19 – 4 = 15). 


The indicators for the VHHD, HHD and MHD countries showed relatively close similarities when the indicators of an MHD country was used, in this case Vanuatu. There were significant differences when the human development indicators from PNG (a LHD country) were differentiated again the indicators from VHHD and HHD countries. 

The HDI ranks for 2014 and 2015 showed that Australia improved by one place from 3rd to 2nd, Fiji retained its rank at 91, Vanuatu retained its rank at 134 and PNG’s rank dropped from 153 to 154.



In this review titled ‘A Way Forward: Review of Papua New Guinea’s Millennium Development Goals 2015 Dismal Performance’ I take a look at three recent articles that address the reasons Papua New Guinea (PNG) had not performed well in its national tailored Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets between 2000 and 2015. The reasons range from technical to geographical and cultural as well as political. In addition, I would discuss what PNG could do post-2015 to achieve the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2030. 


The article The Millennium Development Goals in Papua New Guinea: the response of government [pdf]’ was written by Marjorie Andrew, Deputy Director & Research Leader at the National Research Institute. On the 15th of March, 2015 she presented her research work at a three-day conference on ‘Resource Development and Human Well-Being in Papua New Guinea: Issues in the measurement of progress’. She highlighted several reasons why PNG’s performance on locally tailored MDGs indicators was ‘off the mark’ (Andrew, 2015, p. 22).

In her remarks on pages 3 - 4, Andrew indicated that PNG national indicators we tailored twice; first in 2004 for the Medium Term Development Strategy 2005 – 2010 and re-tailored in 2010 for Medium Term Development Plan 2011 – 2015. Of the 91 PNG tailored national indicators, only 40 were the same as the United Nations’ MDGs 1 to 8. The others (51 tailored indicators) were either blurred or less complying with UN's requirements and therefore cannot be measured internationally. This was of the reasons why PNG was put in the area of ‘no data’.

On pages 5 - 7, Andrew distinctively pointed out that the PNG government lacks the internal technical expertise to collect and analyse important statistical data for the 2015 MDG Progress Report. Though several departments produced reports annually, overall technical expertise across public institutions is ‘weak’. She mentioned that PNG’s reliance on international donors to do reporting showed that without them, vital reports may remain undone.




Dr. Genevieve Nelson, Chief Executive Officer of Kokoda Track Foundation, gave some insights on the eight MDGs and put forward several reasons why PNG had difficulty achieving the MDG indicators. In her introduction, she thought 2015 was ‘...a time to reflect on that past decade’s [and-a-half] progress towards meeting the goals and setting a new framework for post-2015’ (Nelson, 2015). Furthermore, she highlighted that progress was made in the area of poverty reduction worldwide. Quoting McCarter (2003) she said the estimate for people living under $1.25 per day had halved from 43 per cent in 1990 down to 21 per cent in 2010 – an indication of a reduction in poverty. Nonetheless, Dr Nelson said disparity emerged from individual countries. She clearly indicated that according to the ‘MDG Progress Index developed by the Centre for Global Development Think Tank’, PNG is awarded a dismal score of just 1 out of 8. 

Dr Nelson further put emphasis on several challenges why PNG is one of the few countries in the world that did not meet the MDGs. The two technical reasons she identified were that the PNG’s tailored development indicators change very little every few years; and PNG had capacity issues within government offices, including the government departments. Often there was ‘no data’ in tables due to their inability to produce reliable data on a regular basis. In addition to the technical reasons, others reasons that potentially contribute to PNG’s inability to meet the MDG indicators include Geography, Linguistic and Cultural diversity, and Governance and Corruption.

Dr. Nelson remarked that PNG was ranked low on the MDGs Progress Index (1 out of 8) should be a wake-up call for the government. She reiterated that the ‘business-as-usual’ attitude has to change – there is no room for complacency going forward. PNG must improve on the technical, geographical, cultural and political challenges, by developing an appropriate policy framework focused on human development and the provision of services.
In summary, Dr Nelson said the post-2015 era should see governments, donors, businesses and NGOs working together to improve people’s lives. Though it may seem hard, the future of the nation depends on ‘innovation and new technology, collaborations and partnerships, and strong action focused on the delivery of basic services to remote communities, to improve outcomes for all Papua New Guineans’ (Nelson, 2015, para. 15).


The article was written by Ann-Cathrin Joest for an NGO group called the Seed Theatre Incorporation. Her emphasis was on how PNG could use its lessons learned on MDGs as a stepping stone for developing a policy framework for the 17 SDGs, post-2015. Joest introduced her article by stating the obvious - PNG had difficulty achieving the MDGs. She also mentioned that according to the UN’s Human Development Index (HDI), PNG is rated among the thirty ‘Low Human Development’ (UNDP, 2014) group of countries, ranked 165 out of 187 countries. She also mentioned that low life expectancies at birth, school retention, maternal health, high infant mortality and increase sexually transmitted infections were among the human development issues. Joest also mentioned that PNG is ranked ‘one of the lowest on the Gender Inequality Index’ (Joest, 2005. para. 2). In addition, she mentioned that urban crimes and tribal fights were major challenges.

Joest reasoned that this poor performance was the result of poor education and food insecurity; inadequate access to sanitation, clean water and energy; and failure of past and previous governments on its MDG responsibilities. Joest said that the MDGs expired in 2015. Yet, under those circumstances, the SDGs2030 policy framework will not be successful post-2015 if the government does not take action to address issues relating to education, food security, and institutional capacity among the others.

Furthermore, Joest contrasted MDGs to SDGs and thought that ‘previous MDGs did not address the root causes for inequalities and poverty, [while] SDGs address these through the focus on economic development and human rights (Joest, 2015, para. 5).


The three articles, written last year, had identified several reasons why PNG MDG's performance was dismal. Dr. Nelson is attempting to discuss a way forward through ‘collaborations and partnerships, and strong action focused on the delivery of basic services to remote communities' (Nelson, 2015, para. 15) in the post-2015 era would improve people’s standard of living. By the same token, Joest said PNG’s poor performance in MDGs was the result of poor education and the failure of [past and current] governments to monitor its MDGs progress (Joest, 2015).

Both writers have identified three key areas of service delivery: collaboration, partnership and government responsibilities. However, to work collaboratively and in partnership with development partners, the public institutions (and offices) in PNG needed to take their responsibilities seriously (Andrew, 2015). There is a need for capacity building in the country in view of the fact that public institutions either needed donor help in reporting MDGs achievements (Andrew, 2015) or institutional capacity was ‘weak’ (Andrew, 2015) and unreliable.

On July the 20th this year, Helen Clark gave an ‘Opening Statement at the High-Level Political Forum (HLPF) Side-Event on “Building Capacities of Public Institutions for Implementing the SDGs: A Focus on Concrete Challenges and Potential Solutions’ said ‘Institutions which are effective and accountable will play a central role in achieving the SDGs…the 169 SDG targets make direct reference to the need for institutional capacity' (Clark, 2015, para. 3). It is seemingly obvious that through capacity building, PNG can participate effectively and in collaboration with partners going forward into the SDGs 2030 era.


6.1.            Reflection on Andrew’s paper

 I thought Andrew’s presentation was spot on. She critically dissected the eight MDGs through her research. She also stated the obvious fact that the PNG government needed thorough self-examination of its dismal performance, on the tailored MDG indicators. She further mentioned the reality that reporting on MDGs progress had been difficult due to a lack of positive responses from institutional offices like the National Statistics Office (NSO) and Office of Environment and Conservation (Andrew, 2015, p. 16). I gather that her use of words such as ‘difficult’ and ‘weak’ was more diplomatic. But even so, her research experience and the responses showed her frustration over the lack of capacity from her PNG sources. Though I agree with most of the facts she produced, she squarely laid the blame on PNG’s institutional offices she considered to be her data sources for her paper presentation (Andrew, 2015, p. 16). By way of contrast, little did she compliment the Department of Education for data on enrolment and retention (National Education Plan 2005 – 2014 [NEP2005-2014], pp.65 -67), or the NSO data on Household Income and Expenditure Survey (Andrew, 2015, p.8) she used in her analyses on MDGs 2 and 1, respectively.

The point is that though all the data required to compile reports on MDGs were not available, there was the existence of some form of data in other PNG institutional offices. As Nelson pointed out, two factors could affect data usage: either there were few changes over a period of one to two years (Nelson, 2015, para. 8) or the methodology used at that time to ascertain the use of those data may be flawed (Nelson, 2015, para. 8). Andrew (2015) inferred that the ‘lack of robustness of the methodology’ (p. 8) was the reason why the Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) produced by NSO was excluded in the MDG Second National Progress Comprehensive Report 2010. Here, Andrew (2015) saw methodology as the problem rather than data. Nelson (2015) clearly identified the remedy to this problem (para. 8) when she implied that methodologies can be adapted, given the type of data available, to achieve realistic measurements.

6.2.             Reflection on Dr. Nelson’s Article 

In addition to technical reasons such as period of data gathering, methodology for analysing collected data and capacity issues, Dr. Nelson’s article also delved into other reasons why PNG had not met the MDGs (Nelson, 2015, para. 8). I thought she had good insight into PNG’s struggles to achieve the MDGs in the last 15 years when she mentioned other reasons like 'Geography, Linguistic and Cultural Diversity, and Governance and Corruption’ (Nelson, 2015, para. 8).  Even though Nelson was succinct in her explanations, her summary was either difficult to understand with the use of the word neo-liberal (Nelson, 2015, para. 11) or generalised when she used phrases like ‘wake-up call’ and ‘business-as-usual’ (Nelson, 2015, para. 11). By this I mean she was too technical with little explanation or too loose in her choice of words. Either way, there was a possibility for her readers to misunderstand or misinterpret what she intended to say.

6.3.            Reflection on Joest’s Article 

Joest was explicit in linking the key indicators of MDGs 2015 to SDGs 2030. Her web article was less academic but more informative. She gave a lot of relevant opinions on what PNG can do going forward into the SDGs era. She made relevant connections between each of the 17 goals. For example, ‘With improving poverty (SDG 1), an improvement in malnutrition, health, education and the economy can take place. With improved food security and nutrition (SDG2), children or youth can perform better in school. Children and youth are our future, by investing in their education (SDG4) community and economic development can take place, better education will generate increased income which can be directly invested into community health care or other community needs’ (Joest, 2015, para. 6). In principle, Joest portrayed an overview of what PNG could do in terms of aligning national policies framework and termly development strategies and plans going forward (Joest, 2015, para. 6). In saying that, I felt that her article was, more or less, her personal take on the relevance of SDGs in PNG rather than a practical analysis of how SDGs could be implemented.


Finally, each article showed that PNG performance on its tailored MDG indicators was dismal. PNG’s nonperformance would only improve if it learned from its past failures and took a more proactive approach to build capacity within its public institutions. The writers viewed capacity building at public institutions as essential for PNG to move forward.




1.1. Background

Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) initiated a Global vision for improving standard of living, sustaining natural environment and living coherently in the 2nd Millennium. Papua New Guinea (PNG) as one of 193 Member States of the United Nations (UN) signed up to this union right after the independence on 10th of October 1975. MDGs 2000 to 2015 had eight goals relate to (1) Poverty; (2) Primary Education; (3) Gender Equity; (4) Child Mortality; (5) Maternal Health; (6) HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases; (7) Environmental Sustainability; and (8) Global Partnerships for Development. PNG’s government departments, and donor agencies, were instrumental in developing, assessing and reporting aimed at achieving the MDGs in the last 15 years. The then Prime Minister Sir Michael Somare, in his remarks on 2004 MDGs report, stated that performance at provincial and local-levels was ‘mixed’ (Undporg, c2004).

1.2. Purpose of the report

There is an urgent need for the National Department of Education (NDoE) to have a centralized data collection mechanism to collect, analyze and present accurate report and or disseminate to Papua New Guinea (PNG) government and stakeholders. Even after 40 years of independence, the NDoE through the Measurement Service Division (MSD), lack the ability to gather accurate data nationwide. This write-up emphasizes the importance of achieving not only Universal Primary Education (UPE) completion, but also proposes a way to improve educational data gathering in PNG. One of the main constraints of achieving Universal Primary Education (UPE)/Universal Basic Education (UBE) is unavailability of accurate data for developing sectorial policies and plans or making realistic future projections. Key indicators for measuring educational achievements like retention rate, enrolment rate and education quality must reflect real situations.

1.3. What is UPE?

UPE is Goal 2 amongst the eight MDGs. The goal emphasized the need for compulsory, free and quality education for both boys and girls of primary school age children. Primary education, especially the education for children seven to fourteen years of age, is seen as a powerful driver for social and economic development and for archiving other MDGs. (Worldbankorg, c2003)

Structural Reform (1993) came into effect in PNG where community schools ‘topped-up’ to primary schools. Instead of Grade 1 to Grade 6 with an examination at the end of year six, the elementary schools had Grade 1 and Grade 2 identified as Elementary 1 and 2. Transition happened at the end of Elementary 2 where pupils move into Grade 3 and continue to Grade 8 without having to sit any national examinations in between. Evidently, the structural adjustment increased the progression rate from 41 percent in 1992 to 73 percent in 2001 (Primary School Age, UNICEF PNG, n.p.).

The diagram illustrates a standard educational structure by considering existing structures in the United Kingdom and International Education Agency (IEA) in PNG. The focus, as far as UPE was concerned in PNG, was geared more towards the seven to fourteen years old and less on preprimary and post primary levels.


2.1. Policy targets in Elementary and Primary Schools

Specific Gross Enrolment Rate (GER), Cohort Retention Rate (CRR) and Youth Literacy Rate (YLR) were marked for achieving in 2015. Policies on structural, examination and school fee at primary schools were implemented to achieve GER of 85 percent, CRR at 70 percent and YLR at 70 percent by 2015 (MDGR, 2004). In fact, the rates were set below 100 percent to be more realistic and achievable. For example, expanding access at elementary schools is directly proportional to GER. The understanding was that if the elementary schools were established in each village, enrolment would increase. Also, within the primary schools, the number of students continuing school to Grade 7 is maintained with the phasing-out of examinations at Grade 6.

The NEP 2005 – 2014 identified enrolment age at six years of age. Enrolling students early, at an age of 6 or 7 years, in elementary schools increases their chance of remaining until completing primary education. Cultural obligation (especially on girls) and intrinsic social norms tend to force students out of school, especially when there is a disproportion in age gap within classroom. This is a serious concerned for students who may have been in their late adolescence and early teens and doing Grades 6, 8 or 10. The table show a projection of students’ enrolment age. Over a third of students enrolling at Grade 1 on 1999 were of ages nine and ten. In Grade 10 they would have been in their late adolescent.

2.2. Pre-reform and post-reform: Comparison of Grade 6 and Grade 8 data

Recent policies, in particular, the Tuition Fee Free (TFF) Policy 2011 has been thought to have positively impacted school enrolment and retention.  However, data from primary schools before and after the reforms have indicated little improvements. The number of Community Schools (now Primary Schools) have increased every five years in hundreds until 1999, but unchanged in 2015: 2224 schools, 1983; 2503 schools, 1998; 2673 schools, 1999; and 2663 schools, 2015. Examination statistics for Grade 6 in 1990 and Grade 8 in 2015 showed 112,763 (NDoE, c1996) students and 120,000 (The National, 6th October 2015) students sat the national exams in Grade 6 and Grade 8, respectively. Projections for Grade 6 population in PNG by 2004 was 151,513, yet population for Grade 8 in 2015 did not reach the target 10 years later.

There is strong indication that after 15 years of MDGs, the numbers of primary schools had remained static, and there was very little increase in number of students taking exams. The country’s inability to maintain and identify the development dilemma in these two key areas could be attributed to several factors amongst them were inaccurate data and lack of policy guides: either way there was gross misinterpretation and representation of data from the start.

2.3 PNG Education Plans and Challenges

PNG government plans on education showed that achieving UPE is a working progress (MDGPR, 2004) and for PNG to achieve UPE it needs careful planning (Richard Bridle, UNICEF, 2007). A holistic approached is required at all levels of education. At elementary levels, the demand for teachers saw untrained teachers, who were educated to either Grade 6, Grade 8 or Grade 10 recruited to teach elementary pupils. Those pupils would have been taught by certificate holders at Grade 1 and Grade 2 were now taught by teachers with very low English and mathematics competencies. Improved training for teachers, particularly in Literacy and Numeracy, at Elementary schools can improve the quality of knowledge and skills (Ivan Ngoboka, c2015) that are being imparted to students early during their education life.

Educational Sectorial Review (ESR) 1991 had recommended the need for PNG to improve access rate, maintain students in school and reform curriculum (A Kukari, c2012, p.3). The report uncovered that ninety percent of school-age students have not attended school, attrition rate at forty five percent and curriculum was long over-due for reform. Several education plans were developed after the review including National Education Plan 1995 – 2014, Universal Basic Education (UBE) Plan 2010 – 2019 and recently PNG Vision 2050. The plans after the 2nd Millennium also took into consideration the MDGs. In particular, UBE was aligned towards achieving compulsory, free and quality education for all young boys and girls - a sectorial policy framework built on MDG Two, the UPE.  The focus of these plans were to increase access, retention and quality by: improving pupils’ indicative rates like the enrolment, retention, attrition and progression rates; improving teachers training and achieving students to teacher ratio of 40:1; improving educational services and procurements; and developing relevant curriculum to be implemented and monitored.


3.1. In Numbers: Rwanda From Civil War To Achieving UPE

Rwanda Civil War ended officially in 2003. Report on Rwanda achievements indicated that they have achieved major UPE milestones under twelve years though they had more to do with reducing high drop-out rate (Ivan Ngoboka, 2015). The numbers indicating their positive story are: 1870 preprimary schools were constructed for three years pre-primary education targeting children between the age of four and six years of age; two institutions offered degree courses for pre-primary teachers, including 13 colleges offering diploma and certificate course in the same field; 9 year free basic education implemented in 2006; number of primary school between 2000 and 2012 increase by 24 percent; in 2013 enrolment figures increased by 68 percent; rate of students who have never been to school halved to 9 percent from a 18 percent; the ratio of boys to girls in school had increased within 12 years from 50.9:49.6 to 49:3: 50.7, shift which saw an increase in girls’ school population.

3.2 Pakistan’s Constraints

It was indicative that Pakistan was not going to achieve UPE two years before 2015. A report on Pakistan’s constraints and challenges summed that the government needs to show ‘high level of political will’ to achieve UPE (Zakar, Muhammad Zakria et al, 2013). There were significant variation in enrolment rate where some parts of the country have rate at 60 percent whilst one at low 39 percent. A constitutional amendment in 2010 granted sole responsibility on policy reform, implementation programs and monitoring. Decentralization of education functions resulted in complacency in many part of Pakistan. The following are obvious constraints, among many, that hindered achieving UPE: insufficient educational service; untrained teachers usually appointed by political recommendation; lack of community participation; Illiterate parents; lack of political commitments; and Poor infrastructure and learning resources.

3.3. PNG In Perspective

PNG’s government policies on education and challenges are manageable and achievable. Correct data and careful planning are required to achieve educational goals going forward. UNICEF Deputy Director for East-Pacific highlighted that if Cambodia, a poor country, could achieve UPE ‘there was no reason why PNG could not do it’. Figures released by NDoE in 2015 showed that of the 120,000 Grade 8 students, 50.83 percent (61,000 students) do not continue to Grade 9 at lower secondary school. Projected primary school enrolled by 2014 was at 90,703 students (NEP 2005-2014). Indicatively, the number of students sitting exams surpasses the project figure, and physical classroom at lower secondary schools remain very low. There was a glaring disparity between number of primary schools and number of secondary schools. In the same year (2015), there were 2263 primary schools and 256 secondary schools. In view of these figures, it appears that infrastructural development does not catch up with population growth.

To fulfill policies and plans on UPE in the country, both educational and political leaders at national and local levels need to release that there was need to invest time, money and effort in education. In the   research article Challenges for Quality Primary Education in Papua New Guinea—A Case Study the researchers stated that:

… the quality of leadership demonstrated to lead the educational change [in PNG] has been disappointing. Inadequate leadership at the administration and curriculum levels had a negative impact on the quality of education. Achieving quality education has also been hampered by inadequate funding, scarcity of skilled human resources, and inappropriate infrastructure in all educational institutions (Hindawicom, c2011,Volume 2011).

In fact there is a lot similarities between PNG and Pakistan as far as constraints are concerned. It was difficult to identify a developing trend given limited facts and figures. Whereas, Rwanda had presented a clear case. PNG needs to learn from success stories. This means to have strong leadership in education circles who can be the main drivers in achieving the United Nation Sustainable Development Goals 2016-2030 Goal 4 about achieving quality education at early childhood development, care, preprimary education, primary education and secondary education (Wwwunorg, c2016)


PNG has many constraints with its growing population. There is a need for collecting and disseminating vital statistical data. This study proposes that a data collection mechanism is established to address the problem of unavailability of reliable data. To create an independent data management organisation, separate of and from the National Planning Department, NDoE and MSU. One way to make it happen is to create a customized website for collecting useful data for measuring key UPE indicators. This exercise has to be negotiated and made mandatory for schools in the country to comply with.


Though the achievements of MDG was mixed there were strides made in formulation of educational policies and plans aligned to achieving UPE. There are lessons to learn from Rwanda and Pakistan. To achieve the MDG 2, it is recommended that the government of PNG, through NDoE, implement the following strategies: increase number of secondary schools from 256 to 1500; Expand the existing secondary schools by increasing classrooms; promote vocational and technical secondary schools for Grade 8; develop stringent planning, monitoring and management mechanisms; train preprimary teachers up to degree level; increase capacity at teachers training institutions; mandatory Grade 1 school-age at 6 years old; develop data collection and dissemination mechanism; and reduce dropout rate (50.83 percent) at Grade 8, by setting targets for the 8 points.

Churches in PNG and Govt Partnership Vital for Development (MDGs & SDGs)

Should the Churches in PNG be blamed for the poor attainment of MDG (and SDG) indicators? This post aims to address the question paused in this article by asking whether the churches in PNG have become passive in providing education and health services lately.

church and govt partnership

Recommended reading: Lutheran Church in PNG Urged to Build University with Govt Support

Churches in PNG and Development 

For anyone to blame the churches (and its development agencies) on PNG’s dismal performance in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) undermines the fantastic work churches have been doing in the country. 
Number of churches’ educational and health set-ups (revealed in the table, ADRA Australia, 2015, p. 3) indicated that churches are equal development partners. 
Their network needs not only to be strengthened but also effectively funded.

This article, firstly, eliminates the opinion that churches must be blamed for PNG’s poor performances, in the last 15 years, to achieve MDGs indicators. In fact, the Church leaders identified the government’s funding as a major constraint (Aupong 2016). 

The report also showed that the government’s budgetary allocation was reduced by more than half this year, 2016. Churches cannot shoulder any responsibility when they work in challenging conditions. 

They must not be blamed when government budgetary allocation is either cut or not released to them. 

The government’s recognition of churches (RNZ October 7 2013) is one thing said; but a cordial partnership according to Bishop of the Diocese of Bougainville, Bernard Unabali, must be built on Christian moral (JOSEPH April 28, 2016).

Secondly, the presentation emphasises the need for Govt of PNG to do a critical self-search as a partner. The PNGCPP case study identified government lack of consistent engagement with churches as one of the main constraints (ADRA Australia, 2015). 

All in all, churches must not shoulder the blame for PNG not achieving millennium development goals and country indicators. 


The seven mainstream churches and their development agencies in partnership with the government were mentioned by Volker Hauck, Angela Mandie-Filer and Joe Bolger (2005). And further discussed (by ADRA, 2015) in a case study titled Sustained Investment in Church Development Capacity

Both research work, though 10 years apart, had reiterated the significance of reaching the rural population through a Church-State partnership.

The PNG Churches Partnership Program (PNG CPP) established in 2004 by Australia and PNG governments seek to involve churches to deliver education, health and others social services to people in rural areas (ADRA, 2015). 
Over ninety percent (Volker Hauck et al., 2005 p.11) of PNG’s population are Christians, eighty seven percent (ADRA, 2015, p.3) belong to the churches in PNG CPP. Many live in the rural areas. 
In fact, these churches are an important development partner as far as reaching the mass of the population is concerned. 

For development to trickle down to the people, churches’ network must be utilised as ‘vehicle’ for goods and services delivery. Volker Hauck et al., (2005) acknowledged that churches are the main stakeholders.
 ‘PNG society is largely religious and as such Christian churches are important social actors that play a significant role in the country’ (reiterated in ADRA, Australia, 2015, p. 3). 

Indicatively, churches prominence within the community is a vital link between the people and the government.

Consistency and mutual engagement has to prevail amongst the partners like the 
  • PNG Department of National Planning and Monitoring (DoNPM), 
  • Australia Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) and 
  • Churches in PNG. 
Both past (Peter Mar 12, 2010); (Taru Oct 12, 2012) and present (Aupong 2016) governments acknowledged the significance of churches’ participation in nation-building. 

‘The Minister for National Planning and Monitoring Charles Abel says churches are a major provider of basic social services in PNG and the government recognises their role in improving the lives of Papua New Guineans’ (RNZ October 7 2013).

A recent policy framework called the Partnership Policy Framework between Government of PNG (GoPNG) and Christian Churches in PNG was written to include churches in formulation and execution of future development agendas. 

Its purpose is two-fold: to work together to achieve integral human development and to create an ongoing partnership to advance development in the country (Department of National Planning and Monitoring, [DoNPM], 2016, p. 2). 

Past reports have indicated that the GoPNG has either cut funding or delayed budgetary allocation in 2014, 2015 and 2016 and is inconsistent in engaging with churches in PNG and the donor partners. 


Ministerial statements and policy guides would only be rewarding if they are complemented with action. 

It is vital for all parties (the PNG govt, churches and donor partners) to sustain the work of churches. Involve the churches. Bring them into the picture when social developments are concerned.


Adventist Development and Relief Agency [ADRA], Australia. Papua New Guinea: A Case Study of Sustained Investment in Church Development Capacity. Case Study, Wahroonga NSW: ADRA, 2015, 6.
Aupong, Serah. Funding Challenges for PNG Church-State Partnership Program. TV News, Port Moresby: National EMTV News, 2016.
CatNews New Zealand. February 9, 2016. (accessed July 18, 2016).
DoNPM. Partnership Policy Framework between Government of Papua New Guinea and the Christian churches in Papua New Guinea. Policy Framework, Port Moresby: Department of National Planning and Monitoring, 2016, 12.
JOSEPH, MORKANA. Government-church partnership program to cease. News, Port Moresby: Post Courier, April 28, 2016.
Peter, Sea. Incentive fund helps PNG. News, Port Moresby: Post Courier, Mar 12, 2010.
RNZ. PNG announces church-state partnership programme. News, Wellington: Radio New Zealand - Pacific, October 7 2013.
Taru, Benstead. PNG can't do without churches: MP. News, Port Moresby: Post Courier, Oct 12, 2012.
Volker Hauck, Angela Mandie-Filer and Joe Bolger. Ringing the church bell: The role of churches in governance and public performance in Papua New Guinea. Discussion Paper, Maastricht: The European Centre for Development Policy Management (ECDPM), 2005, 39.
Yakham, Henzy. Good news for PNG churches. News, Port Moresby: Post Courier, Jan 25, 2012.

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