Showing posts with label Human Development Index. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Human Development Index. Show all posts

Immigration and Development: Is Papua New Guinea a Temporary Settlement?

This is a script from the History of Papua New Guinea Immigration and Development - an article based on recollection and experience of the writer. 


Temporary settlers

The immigrating population in PNG may refer to foreign nationals looking to Australia and New Zealand as their destinations. The bureaucracy may not have allowed them to get into the intended countries. Many possibly have families and friends living there which makes it more attractive destinations from the outside.

They remained in PNG taking up job making PNG a temporary transit home. In hindsight, time is of the essence before they would steal the opportunity to make it to their Promised Land.


Refugees on Manus Island

The Manus Island Immigrants Detention Centre created by the Australian Government is an immigration burden to PNG. In fact, PNG would be happy for Australia to whatever it wants with them. 

The detention adds to social development issues on the island. The immigrant children born to local women faced an uncertain future.

The big question going forward is what is going to happen to the immigrants on Manus Island? What about the children they are having with the local women on Manus?

Will Australia take responsibility of the children who are born to the immigrants on Manus as Australian citizens? They cannot be left stateless. 

The social implications on the lives of the refugees and their children are the results of the policy decision by the Australian government.

The boats were diverted to Manus. The question is when is it going to arrive at their destination.

Refocusing immigration on development 

The recent immigration pattern is completely distorted. The temporary migrants and Manus Refugees do not have any bearing on the development of the country. Not long term benefits at all!

PNG history showed us that immigration and development worked well in the past when the intention is for developing the country.

Perhaps it is important PNG recognises immigration as a driver for development. Immigration patterns have been left unchecked for a long time. As a developing country, immigration must be for development. 


The complete article attempts to show the positive impacts of immigration on development in the past. And compares it to present immigration patterns. 

What does it mean to be ranked 154/188 on the Human Development Index - PNG, Vanuatu, Fiji & Australia

UNDP, 2016


Australia

A Very Human High Development country with Human Development Index (HDI) value of 0.939 out of high of 1.0, Life Expectancy at Birth of 82.5 years, Expected Years of Schooling of 20.4 years, Mean School Years of 13.2 years, Gross National Income (GNI) per capita of $42,822 (International Currency) and GNI per capita minus HDI rank of 19. Of the 188 HDI ranking, Australia was ranked 3rd in 2014 and moved one place up to 2nd in 2015.

Fiji

A High Human Development country. It has a HDI value of 0.736 out of a possible 1.0, Life Expectancy at Birth of 70.2 years, Expected Years of Schooling of 15.3 years, Expected Years of Schooling of 10.5 years, GNI per capita of $8,245 (International Currency) and GNI per capita minus HDI rank of 20. Fiji was ranked 91 in 2014 and remained at 91 in 2015 among the 188 countries.

Vanuatu 

Vanuatu is categorised as a Medium Human Development country. Vanuatu has HDI value of 0.597 out of a high of 1.0, Life Expectancy at Birth of 72.1 years, Expected Years of Schooling 10.8 years, Mean School Years of 6.8 years, GNI per capita of $2,805 (International Dollar) and GNI per capita minus HDI rank value of 23. Vanuatu ranked 134 in 2014 and remained unchanged at 134 out of the 188 countries on the HDI ranking.

Papua New Guinea

PNG was categorised as Low Human Development Country. PNG has HDI value of 0.516 out of a high of 1.0, Life Expectancy at Birth of 62.8 years, Expected Years of Schooling at 9.9 years, Mean Years of Schooling at 4.3 years, GNI per capita of $2,712 (International Currency) and GNI per capita minus HDI rank value of 4. PNG HDI rank was 153 in 2014 but fell 1 place to 154 in 2015 out of the 188 countries ranked.

Comparison - some similarities 

  1. Australia (VHHD), Fiji (HHD) and Vanuatu (MHD) have HDI value was near 0.6 or higher,
  2. Life Expectancy at Birth above 70 years where Fiji and Vanuatu’s Life Expectancy at Birth were 70.2 years and 72.1 years respectively. 
  3. Expected Years of Schooling for the three countries have an interval of 5 years with Australia at 20.4 years, Fiji at 15.3 years and Vanuatu at 10.8 years, 
  4. GNI per capita about $3,000 (Vanuatu = $2,802) or more 
  5. GNI per capita minus HDI rank value more approximately equal to 20. 
  6. Fiji and Vanuatu DHI ranks have remained the same in 2014 and 2015 at 91 and 134, respectively. Australia’s HDI rank improve from 3rd in 2014 to 2nd in 2015.


 Contrast - some differences 

  1. The difference between the Human Development Index (HDI) value of Australia and Fiji was 0.203 (0.939 – 0.736 = 0.203) and Australia and PNG was 0.423 (0.939 – 0.516 = 0.423) indicating a wide disparity between the VHHD – MDH and VHHD – LDH countries; 
  2. The difference between the Life Expectancy at Birth of Australia and Fiji was 12.3 years (82.5 – 70.2 = 12.3 years) and Australia and PNG was 19.7 years (82.5 – 62.8 = 19.7 years another example of identifying disparity between the VHHD – MDH and VHHD – LDH countries;
  3.  The difference between the Expected Years of Schooling in Australia and Fiji was 5.1 years (20.4 – 15.3 = 5.1 years) and Australia and PNG was 10.5 years (20.4 – 9.9 = 10.5 years)
  4. The difference between the Mean School Year in Australia and Fiji was 2.7 years (13.2 – 10.5 = 2. 7 years) and Australia and PNG was 8.9 years (13.2 – 4.3 = 6.2 years);
  5. The difference between the Gross National Income per capita in Australia and Fiji was $34,577 ($42,822 - $8,245 = $34,577) and Australia and PNG was $42 110 ($42,822 – 2,712 = $42,110) ; and 
  6. The difference between the GNI per capita minus HDI rank in Australia and Fiji was -1 (19 – 20 = -1, Fiji higher value than Australia) and Australia and PNG was 15 (19 – 4 = 15). 

Summary 

The indicators for the VHHD, HHD and MHD countries showed relatively close similarities when the indicators of an MHD country was used, in this case Vanuatu. There were significant differences when the human development indicators from PNG (a LHD country) were differentiated again the indicators from VHHD and HHD countries. 

The HDI ranks for 2014 and 2015 showed that Australia improved by one place from 3rd to 2nd, Fiji retained its rank at 91, Vanuatu retained its rank at 134 and PNG’s rank dropped from 153 to 154.