Access vs Retention: Statistics Favours Improving Vocational Training and Apprenticeship Schemes Than Phasing-out Examinations



Grades 8, 10 and 12 students are on a long Christmas Holiday - three months of rest and respite. Some are heading back to the villages, others to town and cities. Whilst they are enjoying their vocations, they are sure to ask two important questions: How have I performed in the national examinations?;  Will I be selected to continue to the next level?

The first question can only be ascertained by each student depending on how good they were leading up the exams. Students performance in exams can be attributed to several factors such as how well they prepared (were prepared) for the exams as well as Nature and Nurture. May the best students be given one of the limited places they rightfully deserve.

This brings me to the second question.

Based on the proportion of tertiary places available this year and the preceding years,  96% of Grades 8, 92% of Grade 10 and 81% of Grade 12 students will NOT make it to a tertiary institution this year. By this I mean only the select few will end up in Universities, colleges, vocational centres and other higher learning set-ups. 

Those fortunate enough to continue should be congratulated. They have earned the right to proceed. They passed exams - they can enjoy the privileges (pride) and challenges higher educational institutions bring. And deservedly, they should hold their heads up and be proud to continue. 

What about the bulk of students who would not have continued? What will they do? It saddened me to think that the first year out of formal education, little or nothing is available to those students. What can be done now to take them on board the education train?

It is imperative to note that the planned phasing out of examinations at Grades 8 and 10 will NOT improve the number of students entering tertiary institutions. It will further decrease university access rate (ACCESS), but only maintain the number passing through from Grade 8 to 10 to 12 (RETENTION). 

Take for instance, this year (2015) over 120, 000 grade 8 students sat exams. This number as a percentage of 4500 spaces (at tertiary institutions) is 96%. In actual fact, if the government phases out Grades 8 and 10 examinations, about 120, 000 to 150, 000 students are likely to end up completing Grade 12. The problem of retention is addressed, but the problem of access to higher education is not solved. It remains the same. 

Other factors needed thorough consideration before exams are phased out are the availability of resources, number of teachers as well as primary and secondary schools capacity to hold larger students' population. This exercise, if goes ahead, will put huge strain on schools ability to function.

It was good news to have heard that the Minister of higher education has given out cheques to several universities in the country to expand their capacities. This shows that there is likely to be an increase in spaces at tertiary institutions. But, what is the projection - what number are we talking about in 5 - 10 years time? 

A mere 4500 - 10, 000 spaces would not be enough to suffice the appetite for higher education. For the sake of reasoning,  if we put an estimate that in the next 5 years 150, 000 grade 12 students will vie for a tertiary institution space. The spaces increased (from current 4500) to 10, 000. Still there wont be any improvement - nil. 

For it to work, the government needs to improve university/higher education access rate to over 50% of Grade 12 graduating population. The fact now is that this change will make NO difference as far as access is concerned. 

Papua New Guinea will STILL have Grade 12 drop-put rate of over 90% in the next 5 to 10 years with this change- the same as today! 

So the public statements about phasing out examination has to be backed by some foresight. By this I do not mean make examinations history- no. The public examination system has to be strengthened - made rigorous. Address the problem of cheating. Empower Measurement Service Division. Or, come up with alternative measures to overhaul and make examination processes tough - challenging. 

The question of catering for those who have passed (are passing) out of the formal education system can be addressed by focussing on Internship, apprenticeship schemes and vocational training. I will exploit this in the next topic (Give 'Them' A Fish And You Feed 'Them' For A Day - Teach Them How to Fish) on PNG-Insight. 

Meanwhile, here is what I've posted several month ago on the Key To Addressing Skill Shortage and Grades 8, 10 and 12 Pass-outs

Phasing Out Grades 8, 10 and 12 Examinations Must Be Done With Care


Phasing out examinations at Grades 8,10 and 12 can have serious impact on standard of education in the country - it will affect both students' behaviour to learning (study) and teachers' approach to teaching. 

This change (if it happens) will completely revolutionise, for worse or for better, the whole teaching-and-learning process. This change must be done with caution.

It must be done with proper planning and based on proper academic research or a special parliamentary committee findings. I don't think changing the system to meet some UN's Medium Development Goals (MDGs) is the best way. Compulsory education at elementary and primary schools and compulsory education at secondary school have to be differentiated when it comes to discussing educational changes and how each stage is catered for in terms of giving every child the best chance to excel in life.

As learnt from the curriculum change, OBE-1993, a change without clear plan is doomed to fail.Therefore, among the three main changes (Structural change 2016, Curriculum Change 2015, Examination Change) a clear plan must be set in motion prior to implementing it. The details, thereof, must be communicated to all stakeholders so that they also know what is expected, instead of expecting the unexpected.

We (by 'we' I mean the politicians, senior education officials and all stakeholders) must know what is actually changing, and not just about what is changing. So, what is the alternative to phasing out examinations? Will the 'new' assessment style be formal, informal or a bit of both? How will it be carried out and who will be responsible, teachers or Measurement Service Division?

I want to see improvement in the way examinations are conducted, I want to see spaces expanding and more students make it to Grade 12, but phasing-out exams, just,  to let everyone through without a rigorous assessment and or examination system may not be the best thing for our children now and in the future.

Here is what other Papua New Guineans are saying about this change.

INVESTIGATION TASK-FORCE SWEEP UPDATE: PNG Government Must Release K12 million Allocated To ITFS In 2014 and 2015

It is in the public interest to disclose the progress report of Investigation Task Force Sweep (ITFS) investigations. This report contains ITFS’ accomplishments and challenges from August 2011 to present. A copy of this report had been submitted to the Prime Minister and all other respective authorities on 20th October 2015.

The years 2014 and 2015 had been difficult years for ITFS. ITFS faced an onslaught of operational interference arising out of its decision to mount a case against the Prime Minister and other high profile persons in relation to the allegations of official corruption and others.

Complaints and Pending Investigations

The acute financial constraints seriously impaired all fresh and pending investigations. ITFS registered more than 350 cases of fraud, money laundering and all other forms of corruption. ITFS received numerous allegations of inflated contracts and commission structuring recently. ITFS could not progress any of these fresh investigations due to the predicament ITFS is currently subjected to. In due time, should the government allocate funding, we will progress them and inform the respective complainants.

Prosecution Update

ITFS initiated a total of 93 criminal cases. Of this, 12 convictions were secured so far. Apart from the ones serving jail term as listed below, there are cases pending execution of arrest warrants, committal, trial, and verdict on conviction and sentencing. There are also cases that were forestalled by judicial review proceedings in the civil courts. A number of cases had been struck out and/or dismissed as well. ITFS maintains a close track of these cases and facilitates the attendance of witnesses for the respective hearings of these cases.

The Successful Prosecutions so far are listed in the table below.

Case No. Prisoner Offences Committed Status Update
1. Paul Tiensten, Former MP & Minister for National Planning Directed payment of K10m to Travel Air Ltd. Convicted and Sentenced to 9 years Imprisonment with Hard Labour. Serving jail term.
2. Paul Tiensten, Former MP & Minister for National Planning Directed payment of K3.4m to Tol Port Services Ltd. Convicted and sentenced to 4 years imprisonment with hard labour (to be served together with 9 years from 1). Serving jail term.
3. Francis Potape, Member for Komo Magarima Dishonestly approved and received JDP&BPC sitting allowances of K330,000 Convicted and Sentenced to 2 ½ Years with hard labour. Prisoner released by Supreme Court on bail after serving 7 months upon successful appeal. National Court retrial pending. His two co-accused cases are pending trial whilst other co-accused are yet to be arrested and charged.
4. Jabri Kalub Zebedee, Businessman For defrauding K4.75m from the State. Convicted and sentenced to 11 years imprisonment. Serving jail term.
5. Benjamin Salatiel Tobung, Businessman Payment of K7.5m through a company called Metlik Plantations Ltd. Co-accused to Eremas Wartoto. Convicted and sentenced to 6 years imprisonment. Serving Jail term whilst his co-accused case is still pending trial.
6. Charles Aopi, Former Chief Financial Officer of National Parliament Defrauded K150,000 from National Parliament. Convicted and Sentenced to 4 Years Imprisonment. Serving jail term.
7. Newe Lepson, Parliament Staff Co-accused of Aopi Convicted and Sentenced to 3 years imprisonment. Serving jail term.
8. David Kumalau Pondros, Consultant Defrauded K400,000 for a purported jetty project Convicted and Sentenced to 5 years imprisonment. Serving Jail term. He has another K6m case pending trial. 
9. Otto Wangilen, Public Servant Co-accused of David Pondros in the K400,000 fraud. Convicted and Sentenced to 5 years imprisonment. Serving Jail term.
10. Peter Tokunai, Businessman Defrauded K1.5m for Malaguna Catholic Church. Convicted and sentenced to 7 years imprisonment. Serving jail term.
11. Mark Maludu, Senior Public Servant, NDoH For defrauding more than K51,000 Convicted and suspended sentence.
12. Benjamin Selep, Area Medical Store Manager, NDoH Defrauding area medical store Convicted and suspended sentence.

The Office of the Public Prosecutor is commended for the successful prosecutions.

Referrals to Ombudsman Commission for Leadership Actions

A total of fourteen (14) leaders implicated for breach of the leadership code were referred to the Ombudsman Commission for further investigation and action.

Administrative Actions

A total of 28 public servants were recommended for Disciplinary Actions. Most of them were suspended and dismissed as a consequence of our investigations.

Tax Recovery Actions

ITFS has, using the tax powers, raised a total of K242,035,10.00. Of these, K25,546,151.00 had already been paid to Internal Revenue Commission. IRC Debt collection division is working on collecting the outstanding balance owed under the tax assessments after the taxpayer objections are duly accorded.

Proceeds of Crime Recovery

Proceeds of Crime Recovery on ITFS instigated cases stands at K8.3 million. A number of assets and bank accounts had been frozen by Australian Authorities relating to ITFS cases. There is a potential to recover more than this amount once criminal prosecutions are successfully concluded.

The Paraka Related Cases

Most of the cases are being forestalled by various interlocutory and appeal proceedings filed by the various defendants arrested in connection with the investigations into Paul Paraka Lawyers’ alleged illegal settlement of legal bills by the State.

Cases against PM

The cases concerning and relating to the yet-to-be executed arrest warrant against the Prime Minister and number of other senior politicians are currently before the Civil National and Supreme Courts where the criminal warrant is being challenged. The Courts have issued a stay on the execution of the warrants. The hearings are scheduled for this month.

ITFS Politically Compromised?

A number of public statements were made branding ITFS and its members as ‘politically compromised or rogue’, which was one of the reasons used to disband the ITFS team.

The allegations were tested in court, from the District Court all the way to the Supreme Court. In most of those instances, the Courts removed the ‘rogue’ tag placed on ITFS members and placed it on the accusers. For example:

• In OS No. 444 of 2014, the National Court, on a cursory appreciation of the facts, found that the disbanding of ITFS was improper and not in the best interest of the country hence issued an interim stay on the NEC Decision that purported to disband ITFS.

• In OS No. 115 of 2014, The National Court found that “There is in fact no evidence that the current criminal investigations of the plaintiffs are the work of rogue policemen or that the investigations are politically-motivated as described by the Prime Minister in his affidavit.”

• In SCA 87 of 2015, the Supreme Court held that Messrs. Matthew Damaru and Timothy Gitua “maintain strict business discipline as case officers” whereas the Police Commissioner finds comfort in cooperating and collaborating with the Finance Minister James Marape and Prime Minister Peter O’Neill.

Total Funding since 12th August 2011

ITFS received a total of K15.5 million from the Government since its establishment on 12th August 2011 by way of a NEC Decision. That is: - 2011 – K5.8m, 2012 – K3.0m and 2013 – K6.5m.

ITFS was allocated K7 million in 2014 followed by K5 million in 2015 through the Annual Budget. Although Parliament approved those funds, our attempts to draw-down were ignored. ITFS therefore remained defunded for the last two years. In the face of extreme financial drawbacks, ITFS continued to function.

In the 2016 Budget which was passed by Parliament on 3 November 2015, ITFS was allocated no funds.

It is also interesting to note that National Anti-Corruption Task-Force overseeing the establishments of ICAC as well as ICAC itself have no funding allocation in the 2016 National Budget. This body was allocated K20 million in 2013, K20 million in 2014 and K5 million in 2015.

Conclusion

For the K15.5 million that the Government provided to ITFS since its establishment, ITFS had arrested and charged 93 suspects, secured 12 convictions with many more to follow, recovered more than K242 million in tax recovery, proceeds of crime recoveries of funds and assets including restraining of funds and assets in Australia relating to ITFS initiated matters, and recommended many public officials to the Ombudsman Commission and Government Departments (including DPM) for leadership and administrative actions respectively.

ITFS was defunded for the fiscal years 2014 and 2015 despite a National Court Order allowing it to continue its operations. It was very difficult to do much under the circumstances.

We are still following up with the Government for the provision of funds so that we could continue with our operations and complete some of these pending investigations.

Authorized for Release

Chairman

The Most Important System: Future Of Our Nation Depends On Its Education System - PNG




Analysing the Education System From Within

David, it is worrying to see our education system - the system we've  gone though - has been battered over time. Your observation should be a concern for every parent. We know that education is our  future, our children are our future. The education system is the MOST important system in the country. 

Any change within the system must be backed by proper research and planning. Lack of it has resulted  in regression as evident today. 

Education leaders and politicians who are responsible for the education to the people have to start asking questions. 

They have to find answers to the questions: What can be done to improve the education system from here on? Will the change in structure and curriculum improve the education system? Will the planned phasing out of Gr 8 exams improve standard of examinations? Will the infrastructure developments bring better change? Have we seen an improvement in standard of education  through the government's Free Education policy?

I think there is no magic bullet. The deteriorating education standard we see today has resulted from years of unplanned and ill-advised policies. It is now time to ask ourselves 'what went wrong' and fix it.

Being Specific About What Needs to Be Changed - Positive Change

 We need to be specific when we talk about change. There are many changes going on at the mo. What 'good' change do we want to see? A good change (in my opinion) that is happening is the curriculum change OBE to SBE. Another good change also happening (but at a very slow pace) is government acting on Ganim's Report 12 recommendations. What else needs to be done to improve the system of education?

Proper Researches and Reviews Must be Happen prior to Changes in Education System

In April/May 2014 a parliamentary committee on education (PRCE) was investigating and reporting on teacher's appointment process, salary & remuneration (leave fares), functions of TSC and NDoE. The review was done at a time when teachers were having problems with leave fares. The government accepted the review and its 12 recommendations in January this year and allocated over K7.8 million to fund its implementation. Having followed development in education closely, I think this is the best thing the govt has done. But, I have yet to see the result on the ground though it has been nearly 10 months since the govt has accepted the review in principle. Here is the link to the stories I have been following http://goo.gl/YkkqzO

Ganim Report Is An Example of a Proper Review

The report recommends:

1. Review of functions and responsibilities of the DoE and Teaching Services Commission (TSC) in the Management of teachers’ salaries and entitlements.

2. TSC to review Teaching Services Act 1988 Section 9.

3. Review of relevant sections of the Teaching Service and Education Acts on appointment policies and procedures with the view to transfer off powers and functions to the Provincial Education Board.

4. Extension of tenure appointment from current three years to five years.

5. Review of ALESCO pay system enabling it to accommodate processing of all salaries and entitlements.

6. Transfer of full ALESCO Pay System and powers to the Provincial Education Board.

7. Payment of teachers’ leave fares direct into their accounts.

8. Annual teacher manpower update to be conducted in the first quarter of the school year.

9. TCS to assume financial autonomy as a separate entity of State as per the Teaching Services Act 1988.

10. Review of policy, process and procedures in the administration of retrenchment, retirement and resignation of teachers.

11. Review of a centralized modern electronic teacher information database that is easily available for provincial education authorities and other relevant stakeholders to have access.

12. Review of the TCS administrative and manpower structural requirements and resourcing the Commission, enabling it greater autonomy to effectively and efficiently administer and regulate powers and functions.

2016 Budget Department Allocation | Top 10 Winners and Losers, IPBC Receiving an Increase of 67%

The National Government Departments got an increased budget of K24, 059.1 million in the 2016 National Budget compared to K23, 454.4 million in the 2015 budget - an increase of 3%. 

Some departments received increased budget allocations while others had cuts to their allocations. Office of Culture and Tourism, and National Housing Corporation came out the winners at 96% increase in funding for the year 2016. Whereas, the biggest loser is PNG National Fisheries Authority who received a funding of K20 million in 2015 down to just K1 million in 2016. 

The top 10 winners and losers in 2016 compared to 2015.
Health, Agriculture, Tourism Departments and State Own Enterprises (SOEs/IPBC) have been given prominence.
Of the 10 losers, it is interesting to note that the Electoral Commission received 61% less with the 2017 election just 18 months away.

Table below shows the total allocations for each national government department. [ Source: Post Courier, 06.11.2015 , adapted]


Sector
Appropriations
Appropriations
Difference
(+/-) in %
2015 (in Million K)
2016 (in Milion K)
(-) indicates CUT
TOTAL EXPENDITURE
23,454.40
24,059.10
604.70
3%
Economic sector
497.8
603.4
105.60
18%
Conservation and Environment Protection Authority
34.9
64.8
29.90
46%
Department of Agriculture and Livestock
38.7
43.3
4.60
11%
Department of Lands and Physical Planning
38.9
39.6
0.70
2%
Department of Mineral Policy and Geohazards Management
9.7
11.7
2.00
17%
Department of Petroleum and Energy
21.9
47.5
25.60
54%
Department of Commerce and Industry
69.1
62.4
-6.70
-11%
Office of Tourism Arts and Culture
2.1
51.8
49.70
96%
Konebada Petroleum Park Authority
5.4
6.4
1.00
16%
Office of Climate Change and Development
9.2
15.1
5.90
39%
Investment Promotion Authority
4
3
-1.00
-33%
Small & Medium Enterprises Corporation
3.4
4.6
1.20
26%
Nat Institute of Standards and Industrial Technology
4.1
3.5
-0.60
-17%
Industrial Centres Development Corporation
3.4
2.6
-0.80
-31%
Mineral Resource Authority
54.3
26.4
-27.90
-106%
Kokonas Industry Kopration
1.2
6.5
5.30
82%
National Development Bank
50
61.5
11.50
19%
Office of Coastal Fisheries Development Agency
27.9
25.6
-2.30
-9%
Cocoa Coconut Institute
8.3
6.7
-1.60
-24%
PNG National Fisheries Authority
20
1
-19.00
-1900%
Fresh Produce Development Company
11.7
11.4
-0.30
-3%
PNG Coffee Industry Corporation
3.4
10
6.60
66%
PNG National Forest Authority
31.6
37.6
6.00
16%
Tourism Promotion Authority
11.6
9.8
-1.80
-18%
PNG Oil Palm Industry Corporation
0.00
0%
National Agriculture Research Institute
11.3
13.5
2.20
16%
National Agriculture Quarantine & Inspection Authority
5.1
10.4
5.30
51%
PNG Cocoa Board
4.7
16.8
12.10
72%
Independent Consumer & Competition Commission
11.8
9.8
-2.00
-20%
Infrastructure
1,944.30
1,639.30
-305.00
-19%
Department of Public Enterprises
8.3
7.8
-0.50
-6%
Department of Information and Communication
17.3
16.7
-0.60
-4%
Department of Transport
28.7
46.1
17.40
38%
Department of Works & Implementation
1,443.20
1,064.40
-378.80
-36%
Papua New Guinea Accidents InvestigationCommission
7.4
5.6
-1.80
-32%
Independent Public Business Corporation
58.6
178.7
120.10
67%
National Broadcasting Commission
43.4
25.2
-18.20
-72%
National Maritime Safety Authority
35.1
40.8
5.70
14%
National Airports Corporation
151
70.8
-80.20
-113%
National Housing Corporation
0.3
7.2
6.90
96%
Rural Airstrip Authority
5.9
4.5
-1.40
-31%
PNG Power Limited
115.9
149.5
33.60
22%
Civil Aviation Safety Authority
14.3
12.3
-2.00
-16%
National Road Authority
15
9.5
-5.50
-58%
Social Services
2,983.10
3,034.80
51.70
2%
Office of Censorship
3.7
3.7
0.00
0%
Department of Education
1,087.20
953.4
-133.80
-14%
Department of Higher Education
220
137.2
-82.80
-60%
PNG National Commission for UNESCO
4.4
3.1
-1.30
-42%
Milne  Bay Provincial Health Authority
28.5
29.8
1.30
4%
Western Highlands Provincial Health Authority
33.8
32.7
-1.10
-3%
Department of Health
597.9
620.8
22.90
4%
Hospital Management Services
670.1
715.8
45.70
6%
Department of Community Development
73.7
60
-13.70
-23%
National Volunteer Services
2.8
1.9
-0.90
-47%
Eastern Highlands Provincial Health Authority
31.6
35
3.40
10%
Office of Urbanization
2
1.8
-0.20
-11%
PNG Science & Technology Secretariat
4.2
4.2
0.00
0%
West New Britain Provincial Health Authority
36.2
36.20
100%
Manus Provincial Health Authority
17.7
17.70
100%
Enga Provincial Health Authority
29.7
29.70
100%
Sandaun Provincial Health Authority
27
27.00
100%
National Research Institute
5.4
7.2
1.80
25%
University of Papua New Guinea
52.9
77.5
24.60
32%
University of Technology
47
65.2
18.20
28%
University of Goroka
21.2
34.4
13.20
38%
University of Environment & Natural Resources
19
28.6
9.70
34%
PNG Sports Foundation
23
54.4
31.80
58%
PNG Maritime College
4.5
4.8
0.30
6%
National AIDS Council Secretariat
8.8
8.9
0.10
1%
Institute of Medical Research
10
12.4
2.30
19%
National Youth Development Authority
5
4.1
-0.90
-22%
National Museum & Art Gallery
22
22.9
1.20
5%
National Cultural Commission
5.1
4.7
-0.40
-9%
Law and Order
1,383.20
1,240.80
-142.40
-11%
Office of the Public Prosecutor
8.6
7.4
-1.20
-16%
Office of the Public Solicitor
14
12.6
-1.60
-13%
Judiciary Services
330
227.3
-102.70
-45%
Magisterial Services
40.3
38.3
-2.00
-5%
Department of Attorney-General
172.5
159.4
-13.10
-8%
Department of Corrective Institutional Services
139.2
139.7
0.50
0%
Department of Police
367.2
361.3
-5.90
-2%
National Intelligence Organisation
5.9
4.7
-1.20
-26%
Department of Defence
261.2
256.5
-4.70
-2%
Ombudsman Commission
22.2
20.4
-1.80
-9%
Legal Training Institute
13.6
4.9
-8.70
-178%
National Narcotics Bureau
4.6
4.4
-0.20
-5%
Constitutional & Law Reform Commission
3.7
4.1
0.40
10%
Administrative
13,022.20
13,878.60
856.40
6%
National Parliament
165.7
147.5
-18.20
-12%
Office of Governor-General
7.2
5.2
-2.00
-38%
Department of Prime Minister & NEC
125.9
165.6
39.70
24%
National Statistical Office
9.5
10.4
0.90
9%
Office of Bougainville Affairs
5
3.4
-1.60
-47%
Department of Finance
84.3
66
-18.30
-28%
Treasury & Finance Miscellaneous
1,196.00
1,051.60
-144.40
-14%
Department of Treasury
208.9
155.7
-53.20
-34%
Office of the Registrar for Political Parties
9.2
7.8
-1.40
-18%
PNG Customs Service
52.2
59.6
7.40
12%
Information Technology Division
20.5
18.3
-2.20
-12%
Fire Services
24.8
29
4.20
14%
PNG Immigration and Citizenship Services
12.9
10
-2.90
-29%
Internal Revenue Commission
76.6
75
-1.60
-2%
Department of Foreign Affairs
75.8
60.8
-15.00
-25%
PNG Institute of Public Administration
8.9
10.2
1.30
13%
Department of Personnel Management
184.5
146.6
-37.90
-26%
Public Service Commission
8.4
6.4
-2.00
-31%
Provincial Treasuries
48.3
45.2
-3.10
-7%
Department of National Planning and Monitoring
440.3
192.8
-247.50
-128%
Electoral Commission
36.2
22.5
-13.70
-61%
Department of Provincial and Local Government Affairs
124
81.7
-42.30
-52%
Department of Industrial Relations
33.9
33.4
-0.50
-1%
National Tripartite Consultative Council
1
0.9
-0.10
-11%
Department of Implementation & Rural Development
68
65.6
-2.40
-4%
Central Supply & Tenders Board
2.8
2.7
-0.10
-4%
Treasury and Finance - Public Debt Charges
9,924.60
11,330.00
1,405.40
12%
Office of the Auditor General
29
23.9
-5.10
-21%
National Training Council
16.7
40.1
23.40
58%
National Economic & Fiscal Commission
4.2
3.5
-0.70
-20%
Border Development Authority
16.9
7.1
-9.80
-138%