Showing posts with label OBEStandard Based Education SBE. Show all posts
Showing posts with label OBEStandard Based Education SBE. Show all posts

STEM Education in Papua New Guinea (PNG)

What is STEM? 

What is STEM Education and Why STEM Education? How can you plan, assess, and teach an integrated STEM approach?

These questions and many more really got me thinking when I first heard Hon. James Marape, Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea (PNG) announce on media at the beginning of 2020 that STEM education will be implemented in PNG.

This was before I took the Graduate Certificate in STEM Education at Queensland University of Technology (QUT), funded by the Australian Government through the Australia Awards at the beginning of 2020.

I was an educationist working with the Papua New Guinea National Department of Education, participating mainly in curriculum development, training and curriculum implementation through media and digital technologies.,

Being one of the awardees of the Australia Awards short course, I am honoured to say that through this program.

I have learned a lot more than I expected. I even experienced new technologies introduced to us. The short course really contributed a lot to my personal and professional growth. It was even timely with the current curriculum reform the PNG education system is undergoing.

Here is more information of STEM and SBC, click here to find out

Standards-based curriculum (SBC) development

Standard Based Curriculum and stem education in png

Currently, the education department through the curriculum division is in the process of developing a new reformed curriculum called the standards-based curriculum (SBC) to replace the outcomes-based curriculum (OBC). 

With the right timing, and from the experiences and vast content knowledge and skills gained through this short course on STEM education, I managed to contribute in some ways to the curriculum development process by embedding STEM concepts, principles and processes in the SBC curriculum documents (syllabuses and teacher guides) mainly for upper primary and secondary sectors.

The lower primary and elementary SBC documents were developed prior to the introduction of STEM education. However, elementary and lower primary teachers have been advised to apply an integrated approach.

STEM Impact Website

I have established a website that shows more details on the progress and impact of my work in STEM. You may access it through this link:

I cannot thank QUT, my STEM lecturers and the Australian Government enough for the learning opportunity, the knowledge and the skills I learned from the short course. 

My story is evidence of that opportunity of how the course has transformed and contributed to my personal and professional growth. Once again, thank you QUT and the Australian Government.

Disclaimer: This article appears on QUT Impact Stories, written by Malachai Nathaniel, Papua New Guinea. You can visit his website via the link.


Curriculum and Structural Changes: Intensive Early Childhood Education Has Long-lasting Effects on Learning

The education system has undergone several changes. Here are some highlights of the changes in the School Curriculum and School Structure in Papua New Guinea. To clarify, curriculum change would mean the the change from the Standard-Based Education (SBE) to Outcome-Based Education (OBE) and vice versa. Whereas the Structural Change refers to the arrangement (and rearrangement) of Grades composition within the schools. 


Many students in the 1990s will remember the curriculum change that took place. Talks about the change started in 1993/1994. The actual curriculum shift - from the more established SBE to the troublesome OBE - happened in 1995.

 Twenty-one (21) years later, (and after much criticism of OBE) the curriculum reverted to SBE in 2016. This year, 2017, would be the second year of implementing SBE in classrooms around the country. The interesting observation is that there is *no* information about what actually is transpiring in classrooms. It could imply either all is well or something is seriously not right.

Change as a process

Understandably, change – as a process – needs monitoring and reporting on an on-going basis. After 2 years of SBE many questions needing answers as the country's education system moves into the third year of SBE implementation:

  • How are all the key stakeholders monitoring the progress and reporting? 
  • How are the teachers coping in the classrooms? 
  • Is there any significant transformation happening in classrooms nationwide?

Furthermore, in 2015 the Education Department hinted a change in overall School/Education Structure. And, implied to take effect, in 2016, starting with schools in the main centres (This had not materialised). The image gives details of the structural changes, including the attempt changes: 

1.    Pre-1995 (6-4-2 structure) 

  • 12 years of schooling
  • Primary School Grades 1 – 6 
  • High School Grades 7 – 10
  • National High School Grades 11 – 12
  • Up to 1995 was the era of SBE
2.    1995 and ensuing years (2-6-4 structure) 

  • 12 years of schooling
  • Elementary school Grades 1 – 2
  • Primary School Grades 3 – 8
  • Secondary school Grades 11 – 12
  • The era of OBE curriculum dominated by a slow move from the 6-4-2 structure to 2-6-4 structure

3.    2015 structural change (2-6-6)

  • 14 years of schooling
  •  Early years/pre-school Prep 1 – Prep 2
  • Primary School Grade 1 – 6
  • Secondary School Grades 7 - 12

This was supposed to have taken effect in 2016, but did *not* eventuate. In fact, the change would have completely turned the system upside-down. The pre-primary levels would stay the same. But the primary schools were likely to take in Grades 1 -2 and dissolve Grades 7-8. And, the Secondary Schools would (in turn) have taken in Grades 7-8, hence have Grade 7 - 12 (6 grades altogether!).

4.    2018 - *indication of another* structural change (1-6-6) 

  • 13 years of schooling
  •  Pre-school Prep 1
  • Primary School Grades 1 – 6
  • Secondary School Grades 7 – 12

Indicated recently through the media, this is another changed hinted to have started in 2018. Teachers, especially the Tok Ples Elementary and Grade 7-8 teachers, will be the obvious group caught in the changing structure. 

Foundation years (ages 3, 4, 5 and 6)

It is indicative, in the structural changes, that there are only one or two years at the pre-primary levels. This level of schooling remains a lesser focus area among the on-going educational changes. By this I mean, there is a need for *more* emphasis on *quality* at the early-learning (preparatory) years. For example, the education changes could look at widening the base to 4 years of early learning; or ensure children at these early years are a own group apart; or setting a benchmark where teachers with degree and honours teach the children of ages 3, 4, 5 and 6 years.

The changes cannot ignore the fact that learning taking place at the earlier ages has significant effect on children's cognitive and academic development. A research finding pointed out that:
The early childhood education can have long-lasting effects on the children's cognitive and academic development. (Source: RAND, a renown research organisation )
One impending question is: 
Do the educational changes, such as the structural and curriculum changes, place emphasis on the pre-primary level and early-learning?

The changes in PNG's education structure (and curriculum) are for the good of every child, nonetheless. The challenge, going forward, is to re-evaluate and prioritise the early-learning structure - create a stronger foundation.

The Most Important System: Future Of Our Nation Depends On Its Education System - PNG

Analysing the Education System From Within

David, it is worrying to see our education system - the system we've  gone though - has been battered over time. Your observation should be a concern for every parent. We know that education is our  future, our children are our future. The education system is the MOST important system in the country. 

Any change within the system must be backed by proper research and planning. Lack of it has resulted  in regression as evident today. 

Education leaders and politicians who are responsible for the education to the people have to start asking questions. 

They have to find answers to the questions: What can be done to improve the education system from here on? Will the change in structure and curriculum improve the education system? Will the planned phasing out of Gr 8 exams improve standard of examinations? Will the infrastructure developments bring better change? Have we seen an improvement in standard of education  through the government's Free Education policy?

I think there is no magic bullet. The deteriorating education standard we see today has resulted from years of unplanned and ill-advised policies. It is now time to ask ourselves 'what went wrong' and fix it.

Being Specific About What Needs to Be Changed - Positive Change

 We need to be specific when we talk about change. There are many changes going on at the mo. What 'good' change do we want to see? A good change (in my opinion) that is happening is the curriculum change OBE to SBE. Another good change also happening (but at a very slow pace) is government acting on Ganim's Report 12 recommendations. What else needs to be done to improve the system of education?

Proper Researches and Reviews Must be Happen prior to Changes in Education System

In April/May 2014 a parliamentary committee on education (PRCE) was investigating and reporting on teacher's appointment process, salary & remuneration (leave fares), functions of TSC and NDoE. The review was done at a time when teachers were having problems with leave fares. The government accepted the review and its 12 recommendations in January this year and allocated over K7.8 million to fund its implementation. Having followed development in education closely, I think this is the best thing the govt has done. But, I have yet to see the result on the ground though it has been nearly 10 months since the govt has accepted the review in principle. Here is the link to the stories I have been following

Ganim Report Is An Example of a Proper Review

The report recommends:

1. Review of functions and responsibilities of the DoE and Teaching Services Commission (TSC) in the Management of teachers’ salaries and entitlements.

2. TSC to review Teaching Services Act 1988 Section 9.

3. Review of relevant sections of the Teaching Service and Education Acts on appointment policies and procedures with the view to transfer off powers and functions to the Provincial Education Board.

4. Extension of tenure appointment from current three years to five years.

5. Review of ALESCO pay system enabling it to accommodate processing of all salaries and entitlements.

6. Transfer of full ALESCO Pay System and powers to the Provincial Education Board.

7. Payment of teachers’ leave fares direct into their accounts.

8. Annual teacher manpower update to be conducted in the first quarter of the school year.

9. TCS to assume financial autonomy as a separate entity of State as per the Teaching Services Act 1988.

10. Review of policy, process and procedures in the administration of retrenchment, retirement and resignation of teachers.

11. Review of a centralized modern electronic teacher information database that is easily available for provincial education authorities and other relevant stakeholders to have access.

12. Review of the TCS administrative and manpower structural requirements and resourcing the Commission, enabling it greater autonomy to effectively and efficiently administer and regulate powers and functions.

Practical Mathematics: 4 Easy Skills To Aid Mental Calculations And Beat Non–calculator Exam Questions

Here are four mathematical skills you can use in any situation when shopping or dealing with everyday numbers. In fact, having these skills can make you a better maths student – also will help to add, subtract, multiply and divide accurately. 

1. Easy Adding


Skill: Separating numbers into parts, then add

If you can see parts like 20, 20 and 10 (add to 50) and the other 50 make an easy 100. 

Also, 7and 3 (=10) and 8 and 2 (=10) gives 20. By doing this you can get 120 (100 and 20) without having to use a calculator. 

2. Easy subtracting 


Skill: Ensure last digits end with the same number (353 and 33), then subtract in parts
The idea is that the same numbers result in zero, making calculation easier.  

3. Easy Multiplying 


Skill: Separate on number (usually the smaller number) into parts, multiply each out, then add. 

3. Easy dividing 


Skill: Identify a multiple of the divisor (24 is a multiple of 12 closest to 33), and simplify


Many changes are happening in PNG's education system. Change in structure (in 2016) and change in the curriculum (2015, OBE to SBE) are two significant educational changes. The changes must be equally complimented by good learning content (syllabus).  

Methods above are examples of creating effective learning contents, especially when introducing mathematics in class. 

Traditional mathematics and practical mathematics are still grey areas in PNG mathematics syllabus. The examples I gave above are illustrations of practical mathematics – you can do a mental calculation using those skills when shopping or doing other everyday math. 

Traditional mathematics skills are those that you may require a pen and paper to work out the answers.  Our parents are very good at such working out. But, if we are to make a nation of quick thinkers, we’ve got to introduce practical mathematics for everyday use – not just to help in tests and exams. 

Take above as examples of how mathematics in the classroom can be streamlined to prepare students for life. 

5 Educational Strategies Needed Urgent Attention In Papua New Guinea - Where Are The Details?

The academic year 2015 started. Talks about change in Education structure and curriculum have taken a back seat. So, what is the latest development? Well nothing much is happening: there is no news on National Education Plan 2015 – 2024 yet; not much has been said about 2-6-6 structural change; Education Department has not released weekly update on Standard Based Curriculum it promised. Everything seemed to have come to a standstill.

Ideally, NEP 2015 – 2024 would have come out by now. But this plan remains to be seen. Is there anything done about it? No one knows yet.

Education Minister responded to questions in the first parliament sitting 2015 that structural change (2-6-6) will take effect next year. There is very little information about how the change will take place. No doubt this change will require adjustment to ‘transitional stages’. By this I mean, transition from 2 to 6 (Grade 2 – 3) and 6 to 6 (Grade 8 – 9).

Adjustment to the current structure must take place for 2-6-6 structural change to work. It sounds too good: 2 years of elementary, 6 years of primary and 6 years of secondary. But, wait a minute?

What would become of the current elementary schools? What would happen to primary schools with their Grades 7 and 8? How would secondary schools cope with Grades 7,8,9,10,11 and 12?

Where does Standard Based Education factor in all these changes? At what stage do students sit examinations? What are the examination subjects? What key learning objectives are tested? What is needed now is DETAIL. Where is the detail?

There are more questions to ask then answers. Papua New Guinean schools are halfway into term 1 and yet rest of the year is shrouded in anticipation – anticipation for a clear plan for a better education system.

Someone, somewhere has to take the lead. Unfortunately, the onus is on leaders in Education Department. They should try harder to get the changes right the first time. NDoE secretary and Education Minister have to take a proactive role. They must address these issues urgently, today.

1: Publish national education plan for the next 10 years
2: Give details of the structural changes
3: Give details of the Standard Based Curriculum
4: Identify examination years and give details of examined subjects

5: Clearly explain what would happen to National High Schools (Schools of Excellence) and at Primary and Secondary schools.

SBE Awareness: English Only - Elementary Schools To Start With Teaching Phonics, Handwriting Ignored Part Two

Commentary - The Education Secretary talked about increasing time allocation to subjects taught at elementary schools. It is achievable if courses taught in Outcome Based Curriculum are slashed, giving enough time to add to Mathematics, for example. The core subjects to be taught at Elementary schools are Language, Mathematics, English and Culture and Community. 

The idea of scripted teachers' lesson plans is ideal during the introduction of SBE. It must be done properly and in detail rather than a brushed work.

Scripted plans must be complimented with worksheets or teaching aids. If the resources are missing, lessons plans are likely to have little or no use.

I like the way Dr Micheal Tapo explained teaching of phonics, though there is not enough detail. How can elementary teachers teach spelling or reading with emphasis on Phonics? Two common  ways to teach early-years pupils 'how' to sound words are either by learning the sound of letters before sounding words; and or memorising sight words. Put together and phonics make sense. 

FOr example, the 'consonant sounds' and 'vowel sounds' have to be taught at stages. By this I mean instead of learning A, B, C, D, E, F, ....X, Y, Z it would be better to sound them as Aaa, baa, caa, dee, eee, faa, gaa..... Xaa, Yaa, Zaa with the emphasis placed on Aaa, Eee, Iii, Ooo and Uuu. 

These are the basic sounds when reinforced properly at an earlier age, established correct pronunciation, eloquence and accentuation. This 'standard' if developed properly and taught rigorously, like in the days our forefathers, will see great results in students' ability to speak, read, write and use proper English.

What I can be critical about is the emphasis on 'writing'. Writing is a skill. It must be developed properly at Elementary school. But, why is not prescribed alongside Phonics?
The NDoE needs to improve on their ability to clearly set out how to teach Handwriting. This is important and must be part of early years learning. I hope the secretary can take this into consideration. 

Another oversight is the assumption that elementary teachers have teaching aid like mobile phones. The NDoE thinks that they can provide teaching resources in SD cards for teachers to use. Using mobile phones as teaching aid has limitations though the intention is good. Some limitations include battery longevity, visibility, audibility and other practical aspects within classroom setting. 

I am for the Standard Based Education. I want to see it taking off. Despite that, I am of the opinion that the change is far from creating an Education revolution in the country. Not because it is a bad idea. It is simply not prepared well - the change must be smart, sharp and efficient.  

I am afraid after 22 years of Outcome Based Education and scrapping of it, Papua New Guinea is likely to have gone down the same path with SBE as far as preparation, awareness and implementation is concerned. 

Read Page 2 of secretary release in line with commentaries in Part One and Part Two (above)


Increase in time allocation

There will also be an increase in the time allocation for teaching of English, language and mathematics. The new time allocation for English is 300 minutes per week and for language it is 300 minutes per week while mathematics has increased from 210 minutes per week to 240 minutes per week, an increase of 30 minutes at the elementary level.

Use of phonics

In the first 10 weeks of the first term (Term 1) in 2015, every elementary pupil will be taught reading and spelling using phonics, a method based on the sounds of letters, groups of letters and syllables.

Elementary pupils will also be prompted to read books that the World Bank-backed READ PNG project has provided for classroom libraries so that every pupil is encouraged to read from the beginning of their school life. 

The DOE has produced new curriculum documents in preparation for the teaching of the elementary SBC in 2015. In OBC, elementary teachers were given samples of big lesson books and asked to develop their own lessons using the language of instruction. Hence, teachers spent too much time developing resources and very little time on high-quality lesson delivery, resulting in poor education at the elementary level.

The DOE’s Curriculum Development and Assessment Division (CDAD) has produced scripted lessons and teacher guides:

• English scripted lessons;
• Mathematics scripted lessons;
• Language scripted lessons; and
• Culture and community teacher guide.

In the SBC scripted lessons, detailed lessons in English have been written by the curriculum writers at CDAD for each elementary subject. What the elementary teacher has to do is simply pick up the lesson plan for each period and teach. 

The teacher will spend less time preparing lessons and consequently will spend more high-quality time with the elementary pupils in the teaching and learning activities. Other resources will also be provided to each elementary teacher and class for effective teaching throughout the year. 

The DOE has re-introduced Shell Books to be used together with School Journals to encourage elementary pupils to learn to read English books at an early age. These are produced by the DOE. Shell books are small readers containing stories, with pictures, from Papua New Guinea. They are written in English and Tok Pisin, with space for teachers to translate the stories into their own languages and with questions for the children. 

These books complement the English and language teaching and can support culture and community and mathematics teaching at the elementary level. There are also DVDs containing dramas, songs and music. There are also SD cards for mobile phones containing songs to accompany elementary scripted lessons so teaching and learning become playful and fun, in order to allow elementary pupils to enjoy their lessons. 

The DOE believes that all elementary teachers have private mobiles phones with slots for SD cards, to be used during lessons as his/her teaching aid. In our next editorial we will elaborate on other resources to support and complement the syllabuses.

Dr. Michael F. Tapo, EdD

Secretary for Education

Standard Based Education Awareness: Analysis of Secretary's Statement On SBE Part One

Commentary - 
Papua New Guinea NDoE secretary, Dr Michael Tapo, promised to update parents, elementary school teachers and the country about developments in Standard Based Education is a step forward. In a first of a series, he has released in a three-page pdf document outlining what is likely to happen and what teachers can do to kick-start teaching. His commitment to 'outline issues and developments twice a week' should be commended.

All elementary school teachers are to check the department's website, as they are checking their bank balance every fortnight, to see whether there is an increment in their pay or any new resource for use when teaching.

Be aware that this change is the start of a complete overhaul in the Education System. A new curriculum (the secretary called Standard Based Curriculum) as well as a new Education Structure (Two-Six-six) are now taking effect, starting at elementary. Eventually Papua New Guineans will have realised 14 years of Elementary to Secondary education, instead of 12 years like in the 2-6-4 structure.

In is reassuring to know that lesson plans have been drafted as guides for teachers at the elementary schools to use. Any experience teacher can attest to the fact that a plan created by someone is helpful, but can not be used strictly in classroom by every teacher.  

As the new trend in our education system is taking effect now, 2015. I am afraid the change takes place with minimal preparation. For the changes - both curriculum and structure - to be successful there has to be proper research and guides.

At the moment we are seeing it developed in parts. It is like, building a house without a plan. 

Here is the NDoE press first release:

The Department of Education (DOE) is now embarking on improving the standards of education from 2015 onwards. This means that standards in the school curriculum, teacher preparation and professional development, examinations, inspections, school governance and restructuring of the school system and structures are some of the many components of education which will be improved by a Standards-Based Curriculum (SBC). 

The department will be outlining here SBC issues and developments twice a week to make the public and teachers aware of the changes.

Various means will be used to improve the awareness of the SBC to be implemented in 2015, including

• Minister for Education and Secretary for Education speeches and presentations;
• DOE officers giving presentations to schools and other stakeholders;
• Presentation of SBC documents to schools and other stakeholders; and
• In-service training of all elementary and junior primary school teachers (Grades 3 and 4)

Structure of School System 

The Government has embarked on free and compulsory education in 2015 and the level of resources will need to complement the school structure to enhance the standards of education and to keep the children in school.

• Two years of Early Childhood Education;
• 6 years of Primary education — Grade 1, Grade 2, Grade 3, Grade 4 and Grade 5 and Grade 6 and;
• 6 years of High School/Secondary education — Grade 7, Grade 8, Grade 9, Grade 10, Grade 11 and Grade 12 

Elementary syllabuses

• English 
Elementary teachers will teach English as a subject with the emphasis on teaching phonics through scripted daily lessons. The introduction of English as a subject is to address the low literacy rate in the nation. All teachers will use English as a medium of instruction beginning at this level.

• Language 
This syllabus is important for two reasons. First it will help current elementary teachers to bridge into teaching English. They have been teaching elementary vernacular for many years and the language syllabus will help them to teach English better. Secondly, the elementary pupils will learn English quickly when Language is used to explain different English words or concepts. It is important for the cognitive and literacy skills development of the child, in preparation for reading and writing.

• Mathematics.

• Culture and Community, with science embedded as a subject in this syllabus.

Part two of the commentary will be on use of Phonics in Elementary Schools. 

Educators trained on new curriculum | Too much politics, too much talk, nothing done, Dr Michael Tapo PNG Education Secretary

Post Courier report 12/11/2014 

EDUCATORS attending a week long training on standards-based education in Port Moresby have been told to work with the education hierarchy to implement government policies.

Education Secretary Michael Tapo made this clear when addressing education trainers on Monday

Speaking about a variety of issues within the education sector, the secretary told participants, especially provincial education officers, to work with him to implement policies.

"There is too much talking and nothing done. There is too much politics, too much talk."
He told educators not to blame setbacks on the unavailability of money but blame their own attitude and negligence.

The secretary was among other officers from the Education Department’s curriculum section who spoke to trainers from provinces about the purpose of the training and about their roles and responsibilities of training teachers about standards-based education or curriculum.

Standards-based education is all about improving education standards in schools. These come in the form of teacher preparations and professional development, examinations, inspections, school governance and restructuring of school system and structures. These are just some of the many components that will be improved by a standards-based curriculum.

Despite this training, there are also public concerns that the trainings are late as holidays are approaching and teachers may not have time to be fully-equipped on time for the new curriculum to be implemented in the 2015 academic year, beginning at the elementary level.

The education secretary was adamant that this Government policy would be rolled out with all components for the curriculum now being sent out to schools. There are presentations of curriculum documents to schools and stakeholders.

OBE Vs SBE | Education Policy Change, English-Only Language of Instruction in 3 Months

Many changes are taking place. For the last 22 years, the elementary years are when local languages were mandatory under the  Outcome Based Education (OBE) Policy. This will change beginning 2015.

Standard Based Education (SBE) is now set for the new academic year. This means that English will be the only form of communication starting at elementary school.

There is no clear indication of any structural reform and what could be done to balance the change. It appears, for now, that PNG expects this policy change in such a very short time without any adjustment to embrace the change. Does it mean SBE will be absorbed into OBE structure? Government, education planners and NDoE assume it will work, but how effective can it be? The last thing Papua New Guinea wants is another failed education policy.

One change that stood out was English to replace Tokples at elementary level. This is a welcoming change. But, has it been properly thought through? Here is my response to a discussion on PNG Teachers' Facebook group.

PNG education planners, policy implementers, NDoE officials, teachers and government must not mix structural reform with curriculum changes. 

Teaching English from Elementary Schools up is policy change. This is one change at the crucial stage of learning - the elementary school. It must be done properly. This, I infer, is the subject of this post. Now, to Rebecca's point: to be able to speak, read and write properly - English syllabus  at elementary (the early years) MUST be directed to improving students ability to speak English, Read in English and write in English. 

Emphasis must be placed accordingly starting with speaking the language as this is the best way to learn it. This can be effectively done by reinforcing use of phonics and sound. For example instead of learning to say A, B, C, D......X, Y, Z elementary teachers can start by introducing tthe consonant and vowel sounds: Aaaa, Baaa, Caaa, Daaa, Eeee, .....Xaaa, Yaaa, Zaaa. These sounds MUST be drilled into young kids. This must be followed by irregular/compound sounds like ay, ow, th, st, mo, kn.... and vowel sounds, aaaa, eee, iiii, oooo, uuu ....

So you see, if the policy has to change - regardless of whether the structure changes or not -  it must be both PRACTICAL and REALISTIC! You cannot just say 'okay we'll start teaching English . It is SBE. That is ridiculous. The change-makers must point out how to do it right the first time. 

Every stakeholder has to have a complete understanding of HOW English as a language can be taught from elementary to secondary schools without compromising on basics ideas that matter in early learning. Don't tell me curriculum is already there. What's there is as good as the results we saw. 

The challenge: if PNG education planners, implementers and govt make change it has to be done at the right stage with the right approach. So, what is the approach, any ideas?

Not much can be done to change the syllabi at at primary and secondary schools. English has been the mode of communication. What needed fundamental changes is the structure of elementary schools syllabus.

If it has to change from local languages (TOKPLES) to English, clear pathway has to be set to ensure every elementary school child is fully prepared to speak, read and write in English.



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