Showing posts with label Education Plans. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Education Plans. Show all posts

Agriculture in PNG: Unearthing the Past Agricultural Practices and Its Future Prospects

Agriculture in Papua New Guinea (PNG) has a long and fascinating history that dates back thousands of years. Archaeological excavations and research at Kuk, in the highlands of PNG, have provided valuable insights into the practices of the past, shedding light on the early cultivation techniques and land usage. 

This article explores the evidence of ancient agricultural practices at Kuk and what it means for the future of agriculture in PNG. It is based on ''The Case for 10,000-Year-Old Agriculture'' [PDF] in the Whagi Valley by Tim Denham, Jack Golson and Philip Hughes.

(Note that these practices are widely practised in present-day Whagi Valley and other parts of the Highlands of Papua New Guinea)

Kuk ditch and traditional agriculture practices in PNG

Unearthing the Past: Agriculture at Kuk 10,000 Years Ago

In 1974, while studying plantation drains at Kuk, archaeologists discovered evidence of human activities buried beneath grey clay. 

Excavations in subsequent years revealed a palaeochannel and a palaeosurface, unique features dating back 10,000 years. The palaeochannel, known as Kundil's Baret, was likely used for irrigation, while the palaeosurface, found adjacent to the channel, displayed signs of former agricultural plots.

The evidence suggests that people were manipulating the environment around Kuk 10,000 years ago. They engaged in forest clearance and dryland cultivation using a swiddening regime, which involved slash-and-burn techniques. These practices led to increased erosion and significant changes in the local landscape.

The palaeosurface features, such as pits, runnels, stakeholes, and postholes, indicate that people cultivated various edible plants, including taro, bananas, gingers, yams, and other vegetables and fruits. The presence of a stone pestle used to process starch-rich food plants further confirms their reliance on agriculture for sustenance.

The Debate: Wetland Agriculture or Modified Dryland Practices?

Archaeologists and researchers have debated the interpretation of the evidence at Kuk. Some believe that the palaeosurface features indicate the emergence of wetland agriculture, specifically focused on cultivating taro. Others argue that the practices observed were similar to extensive forms of plant exploitation or potentially swidden cultivation, with no significant distinction between dryland and wetland agriculture.

While the specific interpretation remains a subject of debate, all agree that the multidisciplinary evidence points to prehistoric plant exploitation and cultivation practices. The study of plant remains, the palaeoecological signals, and the archaeological remains at Kuk offer valuable insights into the early agricultural activities in PNG.

Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security

Understanding the practices of the past can inform the future of agriculture in PNG. The ancient cultivation techniques at Kuk, focused on diverse crops for sustenance, resonate with modern concepts of sustainable agriculture and food security. 

The historical reliance on a wide variety of crops highlights the importance of crop diversity in mitigating risks associated with climate change and other challenges.

Learning from the past, modern agricultural practices in PNG can be diversified, promoting the cultivation of various traditional crops alongside modern varieties. 

agriculture in papua new guinea

Implications for the Future of Agriculture in PNG

Adopting sustainable farming methods, such as agroforestry and crop rotation, can enhance soil fertility and prevent erosion, contributing to long-term agricultural productivity.

By combining the knowledge of past practices with contemporary agricultural innovations, PNG can build a resilient and sustainable agriculture sector, ensuring food security and prosperity for future generations.

Drawing lessons from the past, PNG has the opportunity to develop a robust and sustainable agricultural sector.

Agriculture in PNG

Agriculture in Papua New Guinea has a rich history that spans thousands of years. The discoveries at Kuk provide a glimpse into the past practices of land usage and cultivation techniques. 

The evidence suggests that early farmers engaged in diverse agricultural activities, focusing on a variety of crops to sustain their communities.

By promoting crop diversity and adopting eco-friendly practices, the future of agriculture in PNG can be cultivated to ensure the prosperity and well-being of its people for generations to come.

National Disaster Management Organization (NDMO) in Papua New Guinea: Membership and Responsibilities

Natural disasters can occur without warning, leaving a trail of destruction, and causing massive loss of life and property damage. Papua New Guinea (PNG) is one such country vulnerable to natural disasters, such as floods, landslides, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, droughts, and cyclones. 

In PNG, the National Disaster Management Office (NDMO) is responsible for managing natural and human-made disasters. 

This article discusses the NDMO's membership, responsibilities, and provincial disaster committees in PNG.

Responsible Ministry

The Ministry of Provincial and Local Government Affairs is the government ministry responsible for disaster management in Papua New Guinea.

National Disaster Management Organization (NDMO) in Papua New Guinea: Membership and Responsibilities

National Disaster Management Office (NDMO)

The National Disaster Management Office (NDMO) is responsible for coordinating the management of disasters and emergencies in the country. 

The NDMO is an organization established by an Act of Parliament, the Disaster Management Act Chapter 403 of 1987. It was previously known as the National Disaster and Emergency Services, and it is headed by a Director-General appointed by the National Executive Council (NEC). 

The NDMO has two basic branches: 

  1. Reactive Branch, which deals with rapid response and operations, and 
  2. Proactive Branch, which deals with long-term matters through research and analysis.
Each branch is headed by an Assistant Director.

National Disaster Committee (NDC)

The National Disaster Committee (NDC) is the decision-making body of any emergency or disaster matter established under Section 3 of the National Disaster Management Act of 1987. 

The NDC is responsible for approving and coordinating all activities necessary for the preparedness, response, and recovery phases of disaster management. 

The Chairman of the committee is appointed by the Prime Minister on the recommendation of the committee members.

Membership of NDC

The NDC membership comprises identified National line Departments with responsibilities related to Disaster Management, including, the:

  • Secretary, Department of Provincial & Local Government Affairs - Chairman
  • Commander of Defense Force
  • Secretary for the Department of Defense
  • Commissioner of Police
  • Secretary, Department of Finance & Treasury
  • Secretary, Department of Works & Transport
  • Secretary, Department of Health
  • Secretary, Department of Foreign Affairs.

Co-opt Membership: The PNG National Disaster Management Act allows other Departmental Heads, NGOs, and national Churches as Co-opt members. The Foreign Missions are represented by UNDP.


Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) such as the Red Cross Society, Salvation Army, church groups, and the Council of Social Services play an essential role in disaster management in PNG. 

These organizations have representatives in most provinces and districts in the country and are active in disaster and emergency programs. 

Starting from mid-2000, only registered NGOs are permitted to involve themselves in any emergency or disaster situation, and their roles are shelter, food, health services, and water when responding to emergencies.

NDC Roles

The National Disaster Committee's primary roles, as stipulated in Section 6 of the NDM Act, include:

  • Providing and rendering advice to the National Executive Council through the Minister on all matters relating to disaster.
  • Approving and coordinating all activities necessary in regard to the preparedness, response, and recovery phases of disaster management.
  • Assuming full and complete control in operations related to disasters.
  • Providing and rendering financial assistance to disaster committees.

Stakeholders' Responsibilities

The actual duties of responses to emergencies or disasters are done by the respective Provincial Authorities in whose province the hazard or emergency takes place. 

Some examples of respective responsibilities by stakeholders include:

  • Department of Health - responsible for all Health related matters, including water.
  • Department of Agriculture and Livestock - responsible for all matters relating to agriculture and livestock.

The NDC also approves and coordinates all activities related to the preparedness, response, and recovery phases of disaster management.

 It assumes full and complete control over operations related to disasters and provides financial assistance to disaster committees.

Stakeholders and their Responsibilities

Various government departments and agencies have specific responsibilities in disaster management. For instance, the Department of Health is responsible for all health-related matters, including water.

The Department of Agriculture and Livestock is responsible for agriculture and livestock-related matters, including food. 

The Department of Transport and Works is responsible for engineering and structural matters on buildings, airstrips, bridges, and roads. 

Telikom (Telecommunication) is responsible for all communication matters, while the Department of Police is responsible for law and order to prevent people from taking advantage of the disaster or emergency situation to commit other offences.

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) like the PNG Red Cross, Salvation Army, and church groups also play a vital role in disaster management. They are responsible for various needy areas, including shelter, food, health services, and water when responding to emergencies. 

However, only registered NGOs are permitted to be involved in any emergency or disaster situation starting from mid-2000, to ensure effective coordination and monitoring of short-term and long-term responses.


Adhoc sub-committees are formed to mitigate the disaster at hand, for instance, the Water Sub-Committee advises on water matters, while the Awareness & Preparedness Committee advises on the type of information to be disseminated to the public on how to best avoid heavy impacts of disasters. 

Membership is composed of technical and specialized government and non-government officers in disaster-related fields.

Provincial Disaster Committees

The Provincial Disaster Committees (PDC) are established under Section 9 of the NDM Act of 1987, and the membership is composed of the:

  • Head of the Provincial Administration or in the case of NCD, the Manager of the National Capital District Commission as the Chairman. 
  • Provincial Police Commander or in the case of NCD, Commander NCD/Central, 
  • Provincial Works Manager or in the case of NCD, City Engineer, and 
  • Provincial Health Advisor (Officer) or in the case of NCD, Health Officer. 

Other members include the Officer-In-Charge of Provincial Affairs, the Officer-In-Charge of Delegated Functions, NGOs or Co-opted Members, and the Provincial Disaster Coordinator as the secretariat.

Roles and Functions of Provincial Disaster Committees

The basic roles and functions of the Provincial Disaster Committees are as follows: To

  • provide and render advice to the Provincial Administrator on all matters relating to disaster management
  • prepare disaster contingency plans, disaster response plans and early warning systems
  • coordinate the implementation of the provincial disaster plans
  • monitor the disaster situation in the province and provide regular reports to the NDMO
  • ensure that relief supplies and services reach the affected people
  • ensure that post-disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction programs are implemented effectively

Conclusion (National Disaster Management Organization, NDMO)

Natural disasters can cause significant damage to infrastructure, loss of lives, and property damage. Effective disaster management is crucial to minimize the impact of disasters on individuals, communities, and the country. 

Papua New Guinea's National Disaster Management Organization (NDMO) has a crucial role in coordinating disaster management efforts in the country. The NDMO, together with other stakeholders, works to mitigate the effects of disasters and emergencies in PNG. 

The Provincial Disaster Committees, NGOs, and Co-opted members play an essential role in disaster management in PNG. The responsibilities of each stakeholder in disaster management are clearly defined under the NDM Act of 1987.


COMMENTARY: The PNG education system is going through significant changes in 10 years to 2029 as indicated in the new National Education Plan 2029 (NEP). Here are the main points:

  • Phase-out Grade 10 & 8 exams and introduce what is called National Education Quality Assessment Testing.
  • Students will continue to Grade 12 without taking the normal exams at Grade 8 and 10, only 1 exit/exam at Grade 12.
The education department and the PNG govt want Churches and Private institutions to do more to deliver Early Childhood Education in what it called the Public-Private and Church Partnership. The department noted that Early Childhood Education is NOT its responsibility at present, however it sees Early Childhood learning as an important entry point in education. A cliché?

School restructure will result in the removal of the Elementary Education Structure and replacing it with Preparatory Schools, prep. A new 1-6-6 structure will come into effect.

This is the structure that many of (if not you) your parents and grandparents have been through. It is like going back to where we started! So why now? Somebody had got it completely wrong?

Is removing exams a mistake?

Removing examinations at Grade 8 and 10 is going to shake the foundation of the Education System in PNG, no doubt. 

The PNG govt and the education advisors have got it wrong in the past. The 1-6-6 to 2-6-4 to 1-6-6 structural re-adjustment is one example of an unnecessary change. Another example of an unnecessary change in the curriculum change we saw lately, OBE to SBE to OBE.

There are many other changes that should not have happened - what is happening is a case of destroying what works well. 

The main reason is that the PNG govt cannot effectively conduct exams - it just costs too much. Furthermore, there are too many students in schools dropping out at Grade 8 and Grade 10 - the govt wants them to have a Grade 12 education. 

However, these are not good reasons to remove examinations (external assessments) and instead opt for classroom-based assessments. THIS CAN BE THE WORST MISTAKE!

You see, this kind of assessment will save the govt money, but it is not as effective as it is intended to be. At present, the education department cannot rely on the internal assessment marks schools sent to Waigani. They need an external assessment. 

Exams and Assessments

The PNG govt and parents need to know that the education department does *not* have to remove the exam and replace it with another assessment it called National Education Quality Assessment Testing. Both can work side by side. 

There are already these kinds of literacy and numeracy (L&N)  assessments at Grades 3, 5 and 7 in PNG called PILNA. In Australia, they have the NAPLAN. These are broad-based  (literacy and numeracy competency) assessments that run alongside the main examinations.

Though these external L&N assessments are different in design and purpose, they are fundamental pillars of measuring learning. 

Therefore, removing one and replacing it with another IS NOT the right thing to do!

The Education Structure 1-6-6

  • Prep 1 year, one entry (1)
  • Primary School, Grade 1 to Grade 6 (6)
  • Sec/National High Schools, Grade 7 - 12 (6)
Indicatively, the 1-6-6 structural adjustment is going to be a huge task.

The education dept plans to 'park' FODE and TVET in high/secondary schools. That would mean that distance education and technical vocational education will be part of the mainstream schools. A better option for 'absorbing' the high number of students at these levels, but just 'parking' these institutions is not good enough. The High/Secondary schools are not parking areas, they are institutions in their own respects.

The CCVE curriculum is in line with the PNG's vision and mission embedded in the Constitution - Christian Country.

In retrospect, a better curriculum teaches the Traditional Ethics & Respect for Elders, Land and Community. CCVE curriculum is absent of the important traditions and cultures of Papua New Guinea. 

What is Christain education when the local knowledge, languages, respect, war history and traditional cultural practices are neglected and or completely absent from the curriculum?

NEP2029 must be a practical document, unlike other past 'paper plans'!

Read the extract from the NEP 2029 below. PNG Insight's Tweets are aimed to add value to this discussion on education planning and development taking place in the country.

You can find the education apps and directory listings here

Fiji is known to have performed really in it Education Goals
NOTE: Fiji has been able to effectively align the Global Education Goals (MDG 2 and SDG 4) to its local targets - performed extremely well as compared to Papua New Guinea. READ ABOUT IT HERE


  1. The current NEP 2020-2029 supersedes the NEP 2015-2019.
  2. The development of the NEP 2020-2029 is based on the best-practice and lessons learnt from the implementation of the NEP 2005-2014, NEP 2015-2019, research documents, reviews, Impact Projects, Programs and data from the Education Management Information System
  3. The National Education Plan was completed in January 2020 and then went through several consultation processes before the CoVID 19 lockdown. The plan was finally approved in principle by NEC in its 19th meeting in 2020 and through the NEC decision 347/2020.
  4. Every province will play a critical role in the implementation of the NEP using the same framework. Provinces will develop their 3 Year Provincial Education

Implementation Plans using the Nine (9) Focus Areas in the NEP 2029

The nine focus areas in the NEP for the next 9 years are:

1. Early Childhood Education 

That all Papua New Guinean children are provided with an opportunity to enrol in an Early Childhood Education program to ensure their full school readiness for entry into the formal education system.

2. Access

That all Papua New Guineans have access to 13 years of education and training in a safe and hygienic environment that is conducive to learning.

3. Equity

That all Papua New Guineans will have equal opportunity regardless of geographic location, economic circumstances, gender and disability.

4. Teachers and teaching

That there will be sufficient well-trained and qualified teachers to meet student demand with resources and support at schools to allow for quality teaching and learning taking place.

5. Quality Learning

That an appropriate curriculum and assessment system is in place to allow learners, supported by relevant and sufficient learning materials, to acquire globally comparable skills and knowledge, certificated when appropriate, required for each to lead a productive and healthy life and contribute meaningfully to national development.

6. Education pathways

That there are easy-to-access pathways available outside of the traditional post-primary education sector that will allow learners to choose an equivalent, alternative way which to attain the knowledge and skills that they need to lead a happy and fulfilling life

7. Local management and partnership

That strong local education leadership at the district, community and school level has ensured well-managed schools, monitored on a regular basis, that are supported by and are fully accountable to the communities that they serve.

8. Management and administration

That national, provincial and district systems will operate efficiently, utilising appropriate information technology, that will allow schools and teachers to focus on improved student learning outcomes.

9. Citizenship and values

That when children exit from the education system they have a sense of who they are and where they come from in respect of Christian principles, their customs, cultures and beliefs, and show tolerance to and an acceptance of PNG ways

Major Strategic Features of the NEP 2020-2029

13 Years of Quality Universal Education: Under this plan, through the school restructure reform, the Department of Education is now taking a bold step to declare 13 years of Universal Education. Children will start at the age of 6 in a preparatory grade and receive a relevant 13 years until they reach grade 12. The move is an exciting and highly significant step forward for PNG as it will see PNG lead in commitments to new global targets.

One Entry One Exit: Children to complete school at Grade 12 and Grade 12 certificate to be the recognized certificate.

Restructure of the School Systems: The plan carefully lays out the 1-6-6 school structure which will see elementary education phased out and replaced as Pre School. 

Key features include the following:

  • Offer 13 years of universal education,
  • One entry at prep and one exit at grade 12.
  • Early childhood will become part of the formal system in 2023 preparing a child for formal schooling at prep grade.
  • Primary education will start at grade 1 and finish at grade 6.
  • High School will start at grade 7 and finish at grade 12.
  • National High Schools to become schools of excellence.

As the restructure takes effect there will be a need to build new or expand existing infrastructure to cater for additional enrolment. The infrastructure development will happen gradually over the plan period.

Early Childhood Education

Early Childhood Education is not at present the responsibility of the DoE but, there is an increasing acknowledgement of its importance and the global call to promote early childhood learning has challenged the department to develop an ECE Policy and to include ECE in this plan. In this plan period, a PNG model for ECE to capture especially the 4 and 5 year olds will take a Public-Private and Church Partnership approach until such time the government takes on board all aspects of all ECE teaching and learning.

Districts and Churches to partner in delivering Early Childhood Education 

Qualified and competent teacher: To cater for 13 years of universal education, teachers in all sectors must receive high-quality pre-service programs and further undergo professional development programs through regular in-service. Along with improved teacher quality, factors such as the provision of suitable housing and better administration of teacher conditions and welfare are critical.

Infrastructure: An important aspect of quality is adequate school infrastructure. There are many schools in the country that do not have this and the Plan required a significant commitment from all parties, including different levels of Government, schools themselves and local communities, to improve this situation. More than just classrooms, the Plan also required specialist buildings to reflect the importance being afforded the STEM disciplines. It is impossible to know just how much has been done because records are not kept. A start has been made on encouraging sound Water, Sanitation Hygiene (WaSH) practices.

Standards-Based CurriculumOutcome-based Education has been phased out and replaced with Standards-Based Education. The standards-based curriculum will be used in all schools. An attempt to harness the power of the digital age in this plan will see the production of the curriculum in electronic forms for e-learning. 

Citizenship and Christian Values Education (CCVE): Implementing CCVE curriculum will pave the way forward for children to be taught life-changing and guiding Christian principles values and ethics

Education Pathways: To achieve Universal Education, students need to be able to choose the most suitable pathways to their needs. This plan looks at developing and promoting an understanding among parents and students for TVET education pathways, purpose and routes to employment. Strengthening the FODE system and linking FODE and TVET will provide a viable option for students’ movements between the education pathways.

Flexible, Open & Distance Education and Technical, Vocational Education Training: FODE and TVET to be parked in a High School or Secondary School in 2021 and onwards. Provincial Governments and Districts to ensure at least one local level Government has a high school.

General Features Education in Papua New Guinea 2029


Despite the progress that has been made in providing education to an increasing number of children and young people, not all Papua New Guineans have been able to benefit fully from these advances. It has long been acknowledged that girls and women have been at a disadvantage. 

This NEP has put in place strategies to try and ensure that girls are given equal opportunities to participate in education and to contribute equally to national development. Equity also takes into account the plight of three other groups of people who have been let down by the formal education system. 

First are those who have special needs and who are not able to take their place in the regular school system. An inclusive education plan has been developed and endorsed with this group in mind.

Second are the children and young people who have been left behind, either because they have never been to school, or have dropped out for whatever reason prior to completing basic education. 

Third are the children from the most rural and remote parts of the country where the schools face their own particular problems.

Examination and Assessment

The current grade 8 and 10 examinations will be used for measuring standards and not for selection while the National Examination at Grade 12 will be for selection into tertiary institutions for all students (in mainstream schools, permitted schools, FODE and TVET institutions). This will be achieved over time. 

It will be mandatory for students to sit for the National Education Quality Standards Assessment Test to monitor curriculum and teacher standards.

Language of Instruction

English will be the language of instruction for all schools in the national education system.

Minimum Operating Standards.

There will be standards set on school sizes, class sizes, and teacher to student ratio for each level of education. These standards will determine the establishment of the new school, approval of additional classes and creation of teaching positions.

Leadership and Partnership

Emphasis is also on School Leadership so that there are good school planning and management. Community and Parental Support is also an essential part of this plan. 

The government will continue to support schools through subsidies and grants. All schools to develop School Learning Improvement Plan (SLIP).

PNG Insight has been following the major developments in education in Papua New Guinea for over 10 years. You can find my work here: Education Policies

Education Ministry Pledged to Deliver Quality Education - Minister's Statement | Papua New Guinea Education Department download


As we are closing the 2019 academic year, I would like to thank the hardworking students, teachers, parents, communities, churches and other supporting agencies for all your tireless effort in contributing to a very successful and tremendous academic year for all of us. 

Without your commitment and willingness in doing things, we would not achieve the things that we have achieved throughout this year.

I would like to thank and commend our provincial and district education officers for their time and commitment to ensuring that quality and important education services are delivered to our schools right down to the districts.

I also thank officers at the Office of Libraries and Archives and Teaching Service Commission for their hard work.

My sincere gratitude also goes out to all our stakeholders, partners especially donor partners, Non-Government Organisations (NGOs), and International Development Organisations including:

Australian High Commission, 
the European Union, 
UNICEF and many others for their continuous support in making sure we deliver the best and quality education needed in this country. 

It is important to note that education is an investment and foundation for national development for the future of our children. Our vision for quality education and high standards is setting the benchmark in all areas of education and efforts will be focused on this trend to see better results.


The Department is looking at the new education reform from Objective-Based Education (OBE) to Standard-Based Curriculum (SBC). The development of SBC is on target and the department is focusing on aligning another component of the education sector accordingly to achieve high-quality education standard results.
 Also, there are ongoing activities including 
Teacher Training, 
School Governance, Management and Leadership, 
Student Behaviour and Attitude,
Research and Monitoring, 
Consultation and Awareness that the department is rolling out to support the implementation of SBC. 

Teaching and teaching practices are the first component that will change to fully implement SBC. Teachers' colleges will incorporate their study programs in line with the newly developed curriculum. 

Teachers graduating from teacher’s colleges at the end of both preservice and in-service will be fully equipped with the knowledge and skills of implementing SBC.
In the full implementation of SBC, the department is also expecting provinces, districts, LLGs and schools to create their own policies so that standard practice is maintained at all levels of education in the country. 

This year, the new Citizenship and Christian Values Education (CCVE) subject has been taught in schools. I believe this will enhance the social, mental and physical character development of our children. 

In addition, there will be Boys Scout and Girl’s Guides to be introduced in schools as compulsory subjects. This subject will be taken after school hours on weekends.


It is the government’s policy that all children must complete elementary education up to grade 12 and no child drop out.
The 13 years of education under 1-6-6 is a step forward in providing the opportunity for all children to have access to 13 years of quality education from grade 1 to grade 12 by 2030. 

The implementation of this structure will result in phasing out of elementary school. The preparatory grade in elementary school will be in preschool. 
Children will have 
1 year Elementary education, 
6 years of Primary education and 
another 6 years Secondary education. 

Grades 1 to 6 at the primary level. Grades 7 and 8 in Junior High School with grades 9 and 10. Senior High School in grades 11 and 12.

This new school structure under the National Education Plan (NEP) is more focused on delivering quality education and addressing issues like school access, retention and equity.


Under the Alotau Accord II, Quality Teacher Training has been the priority for the government. The reform in the education system requires a more holistic approach in delivering quality education. 

Hence, teachers will be trained and fully equipped with the knowledge and skills required in delivering quality education through the implementation of the new structure. 

Pre-service and in-service programs will be rolled out for teachers to upgrade their qualifications from Elementary to Primary and from primary to Secondary respectively as they take on board the responsibilities of the new structure. 

The teachers are the key contributors to child’s learning and development and so I want to see more qualified teachers teaching in schools.


Education continues to remain the government’s number one priority since the implementation of the Tuition Fee Free Policy in 2012 by the previous government. The Government’s funding under the TFF Policy since 2012 is close to K4 billion. 

A total of 11, 194 registered schools in PNG are benefitting from the program with an enrolment of over 2 million students in all our Elementary, Primary, Secondary, National High, TVET Vocational, FODE, Inclusive and Permitted Schools. 

This year, the TFF funding allocation is K616 million. A total of K432 million has been released to the Department with an outstanding payment of K193.2 million yet to be released.
The money that has been released to the department has been paid to all schools including: 
Elementary Schools, 
Primary Schools, 
Secondary Schools, 
Provincial High Schools,
 National High Schools, 
FODE, and 
inclusive of Education Resource Centres throughout the country. 

The TFF policy name is now changed to the ‘Government Tuition-Free Subsidy’ (GTFS) policy. The next year, the GTFS will be a shared responsibility between the government and the parents which means that the government will allocate 63.4% and the parent will cater for the other portion of 36.6%.

I thank the Marape-Steven government for continuing to support the TTF policy and we will continue to work alongside to achieve the maximum outcome.


The expansion of the Technical Vocational Education Training (TVET) sector will accommodate the increasing number of school leavers after grade 12. 

Currently, we are looking at having one multi-technical college at each of the 89 districts and two polytechnic institutions in the four regions. 

At present, we have three new technical colleges in Southern Highlands, West New Britain and Simbu province and one Polytechnic institution in Morobe province. 

The Department will continue to work alongside with the other provinces to convert some of the existing Vocational Centers to technical colleges soon.


For the next 10 years, starting this year, the Ministry has come up with strategies to ensure that national, provincial and district education systems are operational, utilizing appropriate information technology that will allow schools and teachers to focus on improved student learning outcomes. 

We will embrace technology to enhance learning such as E-Library and E-Learning to E-textbooks and management systems. 
The take-up of appropriate IT systems to improve efficiency and productivity such as the My PNG School and My Payslip applications are not an option but necessary.


The next 10 years plan period coincides well with the current government’s 10-year goal and aspiration to TAKE BACK PNG AND TO GIVE QUALITY EDUCATION TO ALL AND NO ONE IS BEHIND. 

Under this new 10-year plan, the ministry has considered another three (3) priority areas in addition to the existing six (6) priority areas of the last plan to address the issues in those areas. These areas include; 

• Early Childhood Education to prepare children to advance in preparatory schools. 
• Equity to address the barriers that prevent children from attending schools Continue from such as sex and gender, children with disabilities, children left out of school and children in remote areas, and 
• Christian and Citizen Values that will allow children to have a sense of who they are and where they come from in respect to Christian principles, their customs, culture and beliefs.

All in all, quality education is relevant and therefore useful to the lives of Papua New Guineans and is the key to how well our education system will contribute to the future of our nation to be the Richest Black Christian Nation on earth.


To finish off I take this opportunity to announce that the first time we have successfully carried out the national examination without any embezzlement. I thank all those responsible for ensuring this accomplishment. Well done and let us maintain this benchmark for next year and onwards. With that once again, I thank all stakeholder for your contribution to the many success of this year.

And I look forward to a more exciting journey with you next year. I wish you all a Merry Christmas and Happy Prosperous New Year. 

Thank you.
HON. JOSEPH YOPYYOPY Minister for Education

Press release Dec

The Most Important System: Future Of Our Nation Depends On Its Education System - PNG

Analysing the Education System From Within

David, it is worrying to see our education system - the system we've  gone though - has been battered over time. Your observation should be a concern for every parent. We know that education is our  future, our children are our future. The education system is the MOST important system in the country. 

Any change within the system must be backed by proper research and planning. Lack of it has resulted  in regression as evident today. 

Education leaders and politicians who are responsible for the education to the people have to start asking questions. 

They have to find answers to the questions: What can be done to improve the education system from here on? Will the change in structure and curriculum improve the education system? Will the planned phasing out of Gr 8 exams improve standard of examinations? Will the infrastructure developments bring better change? Have we seen an improvement in standard of education  through the government's Free Education policy?

I think there is no magic bullet. The deteriorating education standard we see today has resulted from years of unplanned and ill-advised policies. It is now time to ask ourselves 'what went wrong' and fix it.

Being Specific About What Needs to Be Changed - Positive Change

 We need to be specific when we talk about change. There are many changes going on at the mo. What 'good' change do we want to see? A good change (in my opinion) that is happening is the curriculum change OBE to SBE. Another good change also happening (but at a very slow pace) is government acting on Ganim's Report 12 recommendations. What else needs to be done to improve the system of education?

Proper Researches and Reviews Must be Happen prior to Changes in Education System

In April/May 2014 a parliamentary committee on education (PRCE) was investigating and reporting on teacher's appointment process, salary & remuneration (leave fares), functions of TSC and NDoE. The review was done at a time when teachers were having problems with leave fares. The government accepted the review and its 12 recommendations in January this year and allocated over K7.8 million to fund its implementation. Having followed development in education closely, I think this is the best thing the govt has done. But, I have yet to see the result on the ground though it has been nearly 10 months since the govt has accepted the review in principle. Here is the link to the stories I have been following

Ganim Report Is An Example of a Proper Review

The report recommends:

1. Review of functions and responsibilities of the DoE and Teaching Services Commission (TSC) in the Management of teachers’ salaries and entitlements.

2. TSC to review Teaching Services Act 1988 Section 9.

3. Review of relevant sections of the Teaching Service and Education Acts on appointment policies and procedures with the view to transfer off powers and functions to the Provincial Education Board.

4. Extension of tenure appointment from current three years to five years.

5. Review of ALESCO pay system enabling it to accommodate processing of all salaries and entitlements.

6. Transfer of full ALESCO Pay System and powers to the Provincial Education Board.

7. Payment of teachers’ leave fares direct into their accounts.

8. Annual teacher manpower update to be conducted in the first quarter of the school year.

9. TCS to assume financial autonomy as a separate entity of State as per the Teaching Services Act 1988.

10. Review of policy, process and procedures in the administration of retrenchment, retirement and resignation of teachers.

11. Review of a centralized modern electronic teacher information database that is easily available for provincial education authorities and other relevant stakeholders to have access.

12. Review of the TCS administrative and manpower structural requirements and resourcing the Commission, enabling it greater autonomy to effectively and efficiently administer and regulate powers and functions.



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