Showing posts with label education and development. Show all posts
Showing posts with label education and development. Show all posts

Frieda River Mine: Sepik River and People More Valuable Than $2.8 Billion

The Frieda River copper and gold mine in Papua New Guinea is scheduled to begin production in 2035, with an estimated cost of $2.8 billion. However, there is growing concern about the potential impacts of the mine on the Sepik River and the people who live along it.

Sepik River: biodiverse river in the world

The Sepik River is one of the most biodiverse rivers in the world, and it is essential to the way of life of the Sepik people. The river provides food, water, transportation, and a source of cultural and spiritual identity.

Frieda River copper and gold mine in Papua New Guinea

Local landowners and NGOs criticize the Frieda River mine's impacts on the mighty Sepik River, arguing that the potential destruction of the river systems, wildlife, and people's way of life will be irreparable.

One cannot ignore the fact that the Sepik River and its natural environment has provided for the people for thousands of years. It is too valuable to justify the mine's economic benefits. 

The risks of water pollution, acid mine drainage, and deforestation, as well as the disruption of the Sepik people's traditional way of life is far greater than the mining's revenue. 

The Sepik River and its people are More Valuable Than PanAust's $2.8 Billion

Mine Developer PanAust

The developer of the mine, PanAust, has committed to regular government and community engagement throughout the project. However, critics argue that PanAust has not adequately addressed their concerns.

In a recent statement, the Save the Sepik campaign said: "The Frieda River mine is a threat to the Sepik River and the people of the Sepik. We call on the Papua New Guinea government to stop the mine and protect our river and our way of life."

The decision of whether or not to proceed with the Frieda River mine is a complex one. There are potential economic benefits to the mine, but there are also significant risks to the environment and the people of the Sepik. The Papua New Guinea government must carefully weigh all of the factors involved before making a decision.

Papua New Guinea's GDP per capita: Trends, composition, challenges, and prospects

Papua New Guinea is a lower-middle-income country with a GDP per capita of *$2,708 in 2022. While this is lower than the global average, Papua New Guinea's GDP per capita has been growing steadily in recent years. The mining sector is the largest contributor to the economy, followed by agriculture, forestry, and fishing. However, the country faces a number of challenges to further development, including a large informal sector, high levels of poverty and inequality, limited access to basic services, poor infrastructure, and a challenging business environment. Despite these challenges, Papua New Guinea has the potential to achieve strong economic growth in the coming years. Policymakers can focus on promoting economic diversification, investing in infrastructure and social services, improving the business environment, and reducing poverty and inequality to boost GDP per capita and create a brighter future for all Papua New Guineans.

*The World Bank classifies countries as lower-middle-income if their GDP per capita is between $1,046 and $4,095. Papua New Guinea's GDP per capita of $2,708 is therefore in the lower end of the range for lower-middle-income countries.

Papua New Guinea's GDP per capita
The PNG LNG project has had a significant impact on Papua New Guinea's GDP per capita, boosting it by an average of 1.5% per year since 2014. It has also created jobs and reduced poverty, although this impact was largely evident during the development phase. Since then, the project has not generated as many new jobs or opportunities, but it has continued to generate tax revenue for the government.


Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita is a measure of economic well-being. It is calculated by dividing the total value of all goods and services produced in a country (GDP) by the population. GDP per capita is often used to compare the living standards of different countries.

Papua New Guinea is a lower-middle-income country with a GDP per capita of $2,708 in 2022 (World Bank). This is lower than the global average of $12,241. However, Papua New Guinea's GDP per capita has grown by an average of 2.5% per year over the past decade.


The growth of Papua New Guinea's GDP per capita has been driven by a number of factors, including strong growth in the mining and construction sectors, as well as an increase in government spending on infrastructure and social services. The mining sector is the largest contributor to the economy, accounting for around 20% of total output. The other main sectors of the economy are agriculture, forestry, and fishing (16%), construction (12%), and wholesale and retail trade (11%).

Papua New Guinea's GDP per capita comparison
Papua New Guinea's GDP per capita comparison


Papua New Guinea's economy is heavily dependent on the mining and oil and gas sectors. This makes the economy vulnerable to fluctuations in commodity prices. The government is working to diversify the economy and reduce its reliance on mining. However, this process will take time.

In addition to mining, Papua New Guinea has a significant agricultural sector. Agriculture employs around 80% of the population and contributes around 16% to GDP. However, agricultural productivity is low and many farmers live in poverty. The government is working to improve agricultural productivity and support farmers through programs such as the Special Agriculture and Business Lease (SABL) program.

The government is working to improve agricultural productivity and support farmers through programs such as the Special Agriculture and Business Lease (SABL) program.
Logging Special Agriculture and Business Lease (SABL) areas


Despite recent economic growth, Papua New Guinea faces a number of challenges to further development. These challenges include:

  • A large informal sector, which is estimated to account for over 80% of the economy.
  • Limited access to basic services such as education and healthcare.
  • High level of systemic and sytematic corruption.
  • A challenging business environment.
  • High levels of poverty and inequality.
  • Poor infrastructure.

The informal sector is a major challenge for the Papua New Guinean economy. It is difficult to tax and regulate the informal sector, which limits the government's ability to raise revenue and provide services. The informal sector also deprives workers of important benefits such as social security and minimum wages.

High level of systemic and sytematic corruption
High level of systemic and sytematic corruption

Poverty and inequality

Poverty and inequality are also major challenges for Papua New Guinea. According to the World Bank, around 40% of the population lives below the national poverty line. Inequality is also high, with the richest 10% of the population earning more than 40% of the country's income.

Papua New Guinea also faces a number of challenges in terms of access to basic services. The country has a high illiteracy rate and many people lack access to healthcare. Infrastructure is also poor, with many roads and bridges in need of repair.

Finally, the business environment in Papua New Guinea is challenging. The country has a complex regulatory environment and corruption is a problem. This makes it difficult for businesses to operate and invest in the country.


Despite the challenges listed above, Papua New Guinea has the potential to achieve strong economic growth in the coming years. The country has a wealth of natural resources, a young and growing population, and a government that is committed to economic reform. If the government can successfully address the challenges listed above, Papua New Guinea can achieve significant progress in terms of economic growth and poverty reduction.


Papua New Guinea has made significant progress in recent years in terms of economic growth and poverty reduction. However, the country still faces a number of challenges, including a large informal sector, high levels of poverty and inequality, limited access to basic services, poor infrastructure, and a challenging business environment.

Policymakers can focus on promoting economic diversification, investing in infrastructure and social services, improving the business environment, and reducing poverty and inequality to boost GDP per capita and create a brighter future for all Papua New Guineans.


Here are some specific recommendations for policymakers in Papua New Guinea:

  • Promote economic diversification by investing in sectors such as agriculture, tourism, and manufacturing.
  • Invest in infrastructure and social services such as education, healthcare, and transportation.
  • Improve the business environment by reducing regulatory burdens and combating corruption.
  • Reduce poverty and inequality through targeted social programs and investments in human capital.

If the government can successfully address these challenges, Papua New Guinea can achieve significant progress towards its goal of becoming a high-income country.

Additional resources

Donor and reseaches

  • World Bank: Papua New Guinea Country Overview
  • International Monetary Fund: Papua New Guinea Country Report
  • Asian Development Bank: Papua New Guinea Country Profile
  • Papua New Guinea Government: Website
  • Papua New Guinea Institute of National Affairs: Website

Academic journals and books

  •  Asian Development Bank. (2022). Papua New Guinea Economic Update 2022.
  • World Bank. (2022). Papua New Guinea Country Economic Memorandum: Building a More Resilient and Inclusive Economy.
  • Lowy Institute. (2022). Papua New Guinea: Economic Challenges and Opportunities.
  • Papua New Guinea Institute of National Affairs. (2022). Papua New Guinea Economic Outlook 2023

A Contrarian View of Sustainable Development in Papua New Guinea in the Next 50 Years

Papua New Guinea (PNG) is a developing country with a young and growing population. The economy is largely resource-based, with mining, oil, and gas accounting for a significant share of GDP. However, the country also faces a number of challenges, including poverty, inequality, and corruption.

This article presents a contrarian view of development in PNG, with politics at the centre of the discussion. It argues that the country needs a fresh perspective on development, one that is driven by visionary and humble leadership.

Sustainable Development in Papua New Guinea in the Next 50 Years

Highlights and Lows of the Past 50 Years

The first two decades (1960s - 1980s) of PNG's independence showed immense promise. The economy was booming, and the Kina stood at par with the US dollar. 

Roads, infrastructure, and essential services were being built. However, from the mid-1980s to 1990s, the country's trajectory took a sharp turn as certain political leaders deviated from the development path, plunging PNG into a downward spiral.

Politicians Leading with Humility

One glaring issue that has plagued PNG's development is the stark contrast between the privileges enjoyed by politicians and the struggles faced by ordinary citizens. Politicians often seek medical treatment and education abroad, perceiving local facilities as inferior. This attitude needs to change.

To drive a contrarian approach to development, politicians should attend local hospitals, send their children to provincial high schools, and invest in the development of local facilities. This would demonstrate a commitment to public service and send a powerful message to the people.

Power to Transform

To bridge the gap between political privilege and public hardship, legislation must be enacted to ensure that lawmakers, who hold the power to use public funds wisely, lead by example.

Lawmakers need to realise that they can provide the best health and education services in PNG without going overseas. When they build it at home, everyone can enjoy its benefits.

In the next 50 years, one significant change that should take place is that politicians must "feel powerless." This may sound counterintuitive, but it means that they should operate within the bounds of the law and the judiciary, free from a sense of entitlement or immunity. This shift towards accountability and responsibility is essential for sustainable development.

Sustainable Development in Papua New Guinea in the Next 50 Years

Service Over Wealth: The Humble Path to Progress

To serve the people effectively, politicians must be driven by a deep love for their constituents. This entails sacrificing personal wealth and humbling themselves to prioritise the welfare of the nation over personal gain.

A modest salary relative to doctors, nurses, and teachers reflects a commitment to public service. Politicians can lead by example and prioritize the welfare of the people by:

  • Using local services, such as hospitals and schools.
  • Empowering law enforcement bodies to hold them accountable.
  • Accepting a salary that is comparable to other essential workers.
  • Respecting the rule of law and the independence of the judiciary.
  • Putting the needs of the people ahead of their own personal interests.

Remember that a higher pay packet does not equate to serving the people well. By taking these actions, politicians can make a real difference in the lives of their constituents and help to build a better future for their country.


As Papua New Guinea looks back on 50 years of independence and ahead to the next half-century, it is evident that a fresh perspective on development is urgently needed. Politicians must lead by example, focusing on building local infrastructure, feeling accountable to the law, and prioritising the welfare of the people. 

It is only by taking this contrarian approach that PNG can embark on a more sustainable and equitable path to development.

Papua New Guinea (PNG) Flag Meaning: More Than Just Colours and Symbols

The flag of Papua New Guinea (PNG) serves as a striking and meaningful representation of the country's identity and heritage. The flag holds a deeper significance that not many people know. To truly grasp its modern-day meaning, one must delve into the traditional roots of its colours and symbols.

Comprising two identical triangles, with the upper one in red and the lower in black, embedded in a rectangle, the flag stands as a symbol of unity, history, and cultural significance. Now, let's explore the symbolism behind the colours (red, black, white, yellow) on the PNG flag.

What is the meaning of the Colours (RED, BLACK, YELLOW, WHITE) on PNG Flag - what does the red colour represent on the png flag - png independence history pdf
To find out about the school girl who designed the PNG Flag, click here.

Black and Red: Melanesian People and Culture

The black and red triangular design of the flag carries profound meaning for the people of Papua New Guinea. Black symbolises the Melanesian people, who make up the majority of the country's population. This colour signifies their unique cultural heritage, traditions, and identity, serving as a unifying element that reminds the nation of its rich and diverse heritage.

The red colour is rooted in traditions of the Melanesian poeple. It mirrors the vibrant red hues found on traditional tribal war shields, face and body paintings, and other cultural artifacts used by various ethnic groups across the country. In this context, red represents bravery and the enduring warrior spirit ingrained in the nation's history.

Yellow The Bird of Paradise: Unity in Diversity

Within the red triangle on the PNG flag, a yellow silhouette of the Raggiana bird-of-paradise (Paradisaea raggiana) is depicted. The bird is portrayed in a stylised, tribal art-inspired form, with its wings spread wide, ready to fly. This native bird species, renowned for its resplendent plumage, serves as a potent symbol of Papua New Guinea. 

Also, the yellow silhouette of the Bird of Paradise powerfully represents Papua New Guinea's unique wildlife and natural beauty, and 850 languages and tribal groups. 

Beyond that, it embodies the national motto, "Unity in Diversity." This phrase celebrates the nation's multicultural tapestry, emphasising the importance of unity and harmony among the myriad ethnic groups that call PNG home.

White: Symbolising Purity and Friendship

Amidst the black half of the flag, five striking white five-pointed stars shine brightly. These stars represent the Southern Cross, an important navigational feature in traditional PNG travels, and also mark the planting and harvesting seasons of crops—a crucial piece of traditional knowledge still widely used in many rural communities in the country.

Furthermore, the colour white, featured in this emblem, signifies purity and stands as a representation of the country's aspiration for a harmonious and peaceful future.

The diagonal pattern seen in the flag's background is inspired by the traditional exchange systems (also called the Traditional Barter System) such as the ''Moka'' and ''Hiri Moale'', where tribes exchange goods as a symbol of friendship and alliance. The diagonal pattern thus embodies the spirit of cooperation and unity among Papua New Guinea's diverse ethnic groups.

Check out this video for more detailed meaning of the PNG Flag.

png flag meaning video explanation - what does the yellow colour represent on the png flag

The Shark's Teeth: A Symbol of Strength

Finally, the flag's pattern, consisting of the black and red diagonal triangles, is also thought to represent the shape of a shark's tooth. 

In Melanesian culture, including PNG, the shark's tooth symbolises strength and courage, further underscoring the resilience and determination of the nation's people in the face of challenges.

Here is a POEM about the meaning of PNG Idependence that you might also like, click here to find out.

Papua New Guinea Flag Meaning

In conclusion, the PNG flag weaves together a tapestry of colours and symbols that tell a profound story of the nation's history, culture, and aspirations. 

From the bravery symbolised by red to the unity represented by the tribal patterns and the natural beauty encapsulated by the Bird of Paradise, this flag proudly stands as an emblem of Papua New Guinea's past, present, and future.

Police and PNGDF Recruitment and Second Chance Education Plan 2029

Papua New Guinea (PNG) is grappling with challenges in law and order, defence, and education. Rising living costs, unemployment, and social problems have led to violence, especially affecting children and women. 

Prime Minister James Marape's government is responding with significant efforts to address these concerns and implement long-term plans for a better future.

Read the latest in PNGDF Recruitment - click here

Addressing the Breakdown of Law and Order

The recent killings of innocent individuals in various parts of the country have raised serious concerns about the state of law and order in PNG. 

The Prime Minister acknowledges that these issues cannot be overlooked, and it is the government's responsibility to take the lead in addressing them. 

Despite past reports and discussions in the media, concrete actions and firm approaches have been lacking.

On the 1st of August 2023, the Prime Minister assures the nation that his government is committed to finding lasting solutions to curb violence, and create a safer environment for all citizens in a parliament debate on the 1st of August 2023.

Prime Minister James Marape: Police and Defence Recruitment and Second Chance Education

Investing in Police and Law Enforcement

The rising lawlessness and restlessness in the country are the consequences of long-neglected issues, particularly concerning the youth population. 

The lack of proper investment in education and job opportunities has left many young people without prospects, leading to a surge in crime and violence. 

The Prime Minister acknowledges that the government has not done enough in the past, and he aims to change this by allocating significant resources to the law and order sector.

Police and Defence Recruitment

To combat the prevailing lawlessness, the PNG government is taking significant steps to strengthen the police force and the entire law and justice sector. 

The 2023 budget has seen record allocations for the police and justice system, with an emphasis on increasing manpower and providing necessary resources. 

The government plans to recruit a thousand (1,000) new police officers annually until 2029, aiming to expand the police force to a level that can effectively handle the country's growing population and maintain law and order.

The Prime Minister is determined to prioritise the recruitment of new officers, retire outstanding obligations, and implement comprehensive reforms to improve police efficiency. 

Furthermore, the government is working in partnership with international organisations, such as the Australian government, to receive support in training and specialised interventions where necessary.

Here is a better way to recruit Police and Defence Officers in PNG, click here to find out. The current online recruitment process may not be as efficient as it was thought to be.

PNG Defence Force Recruitment

Second Chance Education for Youth

Recognising the critical role of education in curbing lawlessness and empowering the youth, the PNG government has initiated Second Chance Education programs

These programs provide an opportunity for those who have dropped out of school to return and continue their education. More than 80,000 youths have taken advantage of this initiative in, paving the way for a brighter future. 

The Prime Minister calls on other young people to embrace this opportunity and abstain from lawlessness, as education and skills development are essential for building a prosperous and peaceful nation.

PNG's Government Plan of Action to 2029

The developments in PNG's police and defence sectors, along with the implementation of Second Chance Education programs, are crucial steps toward addressing the nation's pressing challenges. 

While the issues of law and order may not be resolved overnight, the government's commitment and actions demonstrate a dedication to addressing the root causes and providing a conducive environment for growth and development. 

Prime Minister James Marape said that his government is making substantial investments and strategic plans to secure a safer and more prosperous future for all citizens. But, importantly, this remains to be seen!

Agriculture in PNG: Unearthing the Past Agricultural Practices and Its Future Prospects

Agriculture in Papua New Guinea (PNG) has a long and fascinating history that dates back thousands of years. Archaeological excavations and research at Kuk, in the highlands of PNG, have provided valuable insights into the practices of the past, shedding light on the early cultivation techniques and land usage. 

This article explores the evidence of ancient agricultural practices at Kuk and what it means for the future of agriculture in PNG. It is based on ''The Case for 10,000-Year-Old Agriculture'' [PDF] in the Whagi Valley by Tim Denham, Jack Golson and Philip Hughes.

(Note that these practices are widely practised in present-day Whagi Valley and other parts of the Highlands of Papua New Guinea)

Kuk ditch and traditional agriculture practices in PNG

Unearthing the Past: Agriculture at Kuk 10,000 Years Ago

In 1974, while studying plantation drains at Kuk, archaeologists discovered evidence of human activities buried beneath grey clay. 

Excavations in subsequent years revealed a palaeochannel and a palaeosurface, unique features dating back 10,000 years. The palaeochannel, known as Kundil's Baret, was likely used for irrigation, while the palaeosurface, found adjacent to the channel, displayed signs of former agricultural plots.

The evidence suggests that people were manipulating the environment around Kuk 10,000 years ago. They engaged in forest clearance and dryland cultivation using a swiddening regime, which involved slash-and-burn techniques. These practices led to increased erosion and significant changes in the local landscape.

The palaeosurface features, such as pits, runnels, stakeholes, and postholes, indicate that people cultivated various edible plants, including taro, bananas, gingers, yams, and other vegetables and fruits. The presence of a stone pestle used to process starch-rich food plants further confirms their reliance on agriculture for sustenance.

The Debate: Wetland Agriculture or Modified Dryland Practices?

Archaeologists and researchers have debated the interpretation of the evidence at Kuk. Some believe that the palaeosurface features indicate the emergence of wetland agriculture, specifically focused on cultivating taro. Others argue that the practices observed were similar to extensive forms of plant exploitation or potentially swidden cultivation, with no significant distinction between dryland and wetland agriculture.

While the specific interpretation remains a subject of debate, all agree that the multidisciplinary evidence points to prehistoric plant exploitation and cultivation practices. The study of plant remains, the palaeoecological signals, and the archaeological remains at Kuk offer valuable insights into the early agricultural activities in PNG.

Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security

Understanding the practices of the past can inform the future of agriculture in PNG. The ancient cultivation techniques at Kuk, focused on diverse crops for sustenance, resonate with modern concepts of sustainable agriculture and food security. 

The historical reliance on a wide variety of crops highlights the importance of crop diversity in mitigating risks associated with climate change and other challenges.

Learning from the past, modern agricultural practices in PNG can be diversified, promoting the cultivation of various traditional crops alongside modern varieties. 

agriculture in papua new guinea

Implications for the Future of Agriculture in PNG

Adopting sustainable farming methods, such as agroforestry and crop rotation, can enhance soil fertility and prevent erosion, contributing to long-term agricultural productivity.

By combining the knowledge of past practices with contemporary agricultural innovations, PNG can build a resilient and sustainable agriculture sector, ensuring food security and prosperity for future generations.

Drawing lessons from the past, PNG has the opportunity to develop a robust and sustainable agricultural sector.

Agriculture in PNG

Agriculture in Papua New Guinea has a rich history that spans thousands of years. The discoveries at Kuk provide a glimpse into the past practices of land usage and cultivation techniques. 

The evidence suggests that early farmers engaged in diverse agricultural activities, focusing on a variety of crops to sustain their communities.

By promoting crop diversity and adopting eco-friendly practices, the future of agriculture in PNG can be cultivated to ensure the prosperity and well-being of its people for generations to come.

Best Online College for Early Childhood Education in Australia

Swinburne Online is changing the way education is delivered in Australia, offering aspiring early childhood educators a dynamic and immersive learning experience. As a joint venture between and Swinburne University of Technology, the institution combines the best of both worlds – the innovation of an industry leader and the legacy of a university with over a century of educational history.

Pursue Your Passion for Early Childhood Education through Online Programs

Best Online College for Early Childhood Education  in Australia

Online College for Early Childhood Education in Australia

Swinburne Online, through its interactive online platform, brings together the convenience of flexible online study and the support of a 24/7 learning environment. This digital campus enables students to access expert tutors, a wealth of learning resources, and engage in fruitful collaboration with their peers. 

By choosing Swinburne Online, students attain the same internationally recognized qualifications as those studying on-campus at Swinburne University of Technology, a globally respected institution serving 30,000 students across its Melbourne and overseas locations.

Why Choose Swinburne Online for Early Childhood Education

Ranked among the top three percent of universities worldwide, Swinburne Online stands as a hallmark of excellence in education. This distinction translates well to online learning, providing students with the flexibility they need to balance their studies with work, family, and other commitments. 

Many of their students are working full-time or caring for their families, and Swinburne Online caters to their unique needs.

The comprehensive support system, available seven days a week through Student Advisors, ensures that students receive assistance in course planning, technical support, motivation, goal-setting, and self-care. 

The eLearning Assistants (eLAs) provide specialized guidance and address queries for each unit. Swinburne Online operates on three teaching periods a year (March, July, and November), with each period spanning 13 weeks. Students can opt to complete one to four units per period, with each unit requiring approximately eight to ten hours of weekly study.

Australian citizens also benefit from fee assistance, making quality education accessible to a broader demographic. Whether you're looking to accelerate your learning or prefer a more gradual pace, Swinburne Online accommodates your individual goals and aspirations.

You can contact directly on their website, they are also available on LinkedIn, click here.

How the Online Program Enhances Early Childhood Education

Swinburne Online's Early Childhood Education program goes beyond imparting child development knowledge; it explores the broader domains of learning, education philosophies, and the nurturing aspects of early childhood teaching. This program has been designed thoughtfully, considering the needs of working professionals in the field.

One remarkable feature of the program is its integration of practical experience, or practicum, into the coursework. This approach empowers early childhood educators to continue working in their service while gaining valuable hands-on experience that can be immediately applied to their daily tasks. 

The seamless integration of theory and practice ensures that educators can implement newly acquired knowledge into their work right away, enriching their learning journey.

The Graduate Diploma in Early Childhood Education offered by Swinburne Online stands out for its efficiency. 

Spanning just one year and comprising four units, this program is tailored for those who can't dedicate extended periods for studying. This allows students to maintain their roles in their current centers while progressively becoming qualified early childhood teachers. 

The benefits of this qualification can elevate their professional capacities to new heights, bringing positive change to their careers.

Conclusion: Early Childhood Education Online

Swinburne Online stands as a beacon of innovation and excellence in early childhood education. By blending the legacy of Swinburne University of Technology with the digital advancements of today, the institution offers an unparalleled online learning experience. 

Aspiring educators looking to further their careers can seize the opportunity to earn industry-ready qualifications while maintaining their commitments. 

Embrace the digital pathway to excellence with Swinburne Online's Early Childhood Education programs.

PNG Vision 2050: A Roadmap for a Prosperous Future - Where to Now?

PNG Vision 2050


Papua New Guinea (PNG) Vision 2050 is a long-term development plan that aims to transform the country into a smart, fair, and prosperous nation by the year 2050. The vision was launched in 2009 and has been updated in 2016, with a strategic focus on creating a sustainable economy, society, and environment.

Mission and vision

The mission of PNG Vision 2050 is to create a society that is smart, fair, healthy, wealthy, and happy. It seeks to transform the country by leveraging its rich natural resources and human capital to achieve:

  • Sustainable economic growth
  • Social development
  • Environmental protection
  • Strategic visions

PNG Vision 2050

PNG Vision 2050 Strategic Visions

PNG Vision 2050 identifies eight strategic visions that the country should focus on to achieve its long-term development goals:

1. Human capital development: To create a highly educated and skilled workforce that is productive, innovative, and globally competitive.

2. Wealth creation: To promote sustainable economic growth by leveraging the country's natural resources, developing industries, and creating job opportunities.

3. Institutional development: To build strong and effective institutions that promote good governance, accountability, and transparency.

4. Infrastructure development: To develop modern and efficient infrastructure that connects the country's regions, promotes economic growth, and enhances the quality of life of its citizens.

5. Environmental sustainability: To protect the country's rich biodiversity and natural resources by promoting sustainable development practices.

6. Security and stability: To ensure peace, security, and stability in the country, promoting social cohesion and a sense of national identity.

7. International participation: To engage actively with the international community and promote Papua New Guinea's interests in the global arena.

8. Spiritual, cultural, and community development: To preserve and promote the country's diverse cultures, traditions, and values, and strengthen the sense of community and national identity.

Urgent actions to meet PNG Vision 2050

To achieve its long-term development goals, PNG needs to take urgent actions in various areas. These actions include:

Strengthening institutions: 

PNG needs to build strong and effective institutions that promote good governance, accountability, and transparency.

Investing in human capital: 

The country needs to invest in education and training to develop a skilled and productive workforce that is globally competitive.

Developing infrastructure: 

PNG needs to invest in modern and efficient infrastructure that connects the country's regions, promotes economic growth, and enhances the quality of life of its citizens.

Promoting environmental sustainability:

PNG needs to adopt sustainable development practices that protect its rich biodiversity and natural resources.

PNG Vision 2050 achievements and the road ahead

PNG has made some progress towards achieving the goals of Vision 2050 in the past decade. 

From 2009 to 2019, the country achieved an average annual economic growth rate of 2.7%, reduced poverty from 39% to 37%, increased the literacy rate from 60% to 63%, and expanded access to basic services such as health and education.

Recently, the ADB economic forecast for PNG shows that the country's GDP is expected to grow by 3.5% in 2022 and 4.9% in 2023 and inflation rates forecasted at 6.5% in 2022 and 5.1% in 2023

png vision 2050 - ADB economic forecast for PNG shows that the country's GDP is expected to grow by 3.5% in 2022 and 4.9% in 2023 and inflation rates forecasted at 6.5% in 2022 and 5.1% in 2023

Address challenges immediately

Despite ADB's positive forecast for 2023, much more needs to be done before 2029, 2039, and 2049 to achieve the goals of PNG Vision 2050 fully. 

The country needs to address challenges such as 

  • corruption, 
  • inadequate infrastructure, 
  • low human capital, and 
  • environmental degradation. 
Papua New Guinea's government must continue to invest in its people and infrastructure, promote good governance, and work towards building a sustainable future for all its citizens.

Medium-Term Development Plan and Actions

The PNG government has recognised the importance of Vision 2050 and has outlined a Second Medium Term Development Plan for 2018-2022 to help achieve its goals. 

The plan prioritises the development of infrastructure, education, healthcare, and the private sector, with a focus on improving the livelihoods of the rural population and promoting inclusive growth.

Moreover, the government has launched various initiatives to support the realization of Vision 2050. For example, the National Development Bank of PNG provides loans to support small and medium-sized enterprises, and the Tuition Fee-Free policy has increased access to education for many children in the country.

Despite these efforts, the country still faces significant challenges. For example, PNG has one of the lowest human development indexes in the world, and poverty remains a significant issue, with over a third of the population living below the poverty line.

PNG Government Urgent Action Prior to 2029, 2039 and 2049

To address these challenges, the PNG government ( prior to 2029, 2039 and 2049) needs to continue 

  • investing in infrastructure, education, and healthcare, promoting good governance and accountability, 
  • developing sustainable economic models, and 
  • addressing issues such as climate change and environmental degradation, which pose significant threats to the country's long-term development goals.

Conclusion -  PNG Vision 2050

PNG Vision 2050 provides a roadmap for PNG to achieve sustainable economic growth, social development, and environmental protection. While the country has made progress towards its long-term goals, much more needs to be done to ensure that Vision 2050 is fully realized. 

Above all, the PNG government must continue investing in human capital and infrastructure, promoting good governance and accountability, and developing sustainable economic models to build a better future for all its citizens.

Illegal Logging in Papua New Guinea Alarming COP27

The video is an edited version of the online streaming conference on Climate Change and the effects of  Illegal Logging in Papua New Guinea, during the COP26 summit. What has come of it now Papua New Guinea delegates are going to the COP27?

Illegal Logging in PNG Concerning

The COP26 was held in Glasgow where 62 PNG delegates participated. 

This video features Hon. Governor of Oro Province Garry Juffa talking about vile operations of the Melanesian logger in Papua New Guinea. 

His province is a hotspot for illegal logging. 

Listen to his fight against the organised syndicate that is damaging forests in Papua New Guinea.

It is widely known that most of the logging operations in PNG have elements of manipulation, cohesion and corruption. Not one of them is clean.

Read our articles on deforestation caused by the illegal loggers in PNG

Gary Juffa talks about illegal logging operations in Papua New Guinea.

00:00 - Malaysian Loggers - WHO ARE THEY?

02:00 - Start of Distruction on Forest in Papua New Guinea

07:23 - Inquiry into Illegal Logging in PNG - WHAT HAPPENED WILL SHOCK YOU!

10:05 - What Happened to Illegal Logging in Oro Province

17:00 - Illegal Loggers causing Waterway Pollutions

20:30 - The same loggers are destroying forests in the Solomon Islands

22:33 - What the International Community should do!

26:20 - Gordon Brown commentary on Illegal logging and destruction of the environment in Sarawak and Papua New Guinea.

29:00 - Appeal to International Community

How Does 2024 Grade 11 Selection Take Place?

We received a lot of questions about the 2024 Grade 11 Selection so this article will help you understand what is actually happening. PNG Insight provides some insights into how the Grade 11 selection takes place over the years. 

Note that the times are based on past writer's experiences and observations - they may change depending on the education department's present circumstances.

Do you think the Education Department should include the dates for the publication of Grade 10 and 12 examination results and Grade 11 selection on the Education Department Calendar? Let us know what you think here.

2024 Grade 11 selection list PDF selection list 2024 pdf

How Grade 11 Selection Happens 

The yearly grade 11 selections take place in four stages. The selections start in the provinces after the Grade 10 examinations and culminate in Port Moresby where the results come out to students, parents, schools and stakeholders.

Stage 1: Release of Grade 10 Exam Results

The Measurement Services Division (Education Department) releases the Grade 10 results to the members of the provincial and national Grade 11 selection committee.

Stage 2: Grade 11 selection in Port Moresby & Provinces

The selection committee takes about two weeks to select Grade 11 students for National High and Secondary Schools. 

This provincial Grade 11 selection committee works with the General Education Services of the Education Department to do the selection in the provinces.

This year's selection dates for National Schools of Excellence and Secondary Schools are here.

Stage 3: Education Secretary Sights the Selection List

GES takes the list to the Education Secretary to sight and sign. This can take a couple of days to a week

Stage 4: GES/ICT division publishes Grade 11 selection list

The GES works with the ICT Division to upload the file onto the Education Department website. This is a one-day work but can take up to a week to complete.

The selection committee and three divisions (MSD, GES and ICT) of the Education Department work together to bring the Grade 11 selection list to you. 

So, there you have it. 

2024 Grade 11 selection process and selection list PDF

When will the 2023 Grade 11 Selection list come out?

The General Education Services (GES) of the National Department of Education and Education Secretary will give you the answer to the question.

The Measurement Services Division will release the Exam Results for Grade 10 to the GES and Grade 11 selectors, usually on the first week of December every year. 

This is Stage 1 of the 2024 Grade 11 selection.

From past experience, the actual selection can take two weeks - as we mentioned in this article.  This is Stage 2 of Selection where the selectors meet in Port Moresby and finalise the Grade 11 Lists. 

By stage 2, your principals and provincial education officers should have the name list of their respective schools.

Last year's selections (2023 Grade 11 Selection List) came out on the 19th of December 2022. There was a delay of 1 week.

Expect the 2024 Grade 11 Selection List for all regions to be published around the same time. Here are the past release dates that you might want to see if you want to get ideas about the release of the 2024 Grade 11 selection list, PDF.

How will the Education Dept Publish the Grade 11 List 2024?

The General Education Services and ICT Divisions normally make the Grade 11 selection list available in PDF according to the Regions and Schools. 

Since last year, GES/ICT Divisions have attempted to try a *LOGIN* system but they did not carry it through due to a lack of technical capacity, we believe. 

Neither GES nor ICT said anything about it, so you just have to wait and see what happens this year.

What's Happening Right Now

Right now, we believe the Grade 11 Selection Committee is finalising the selection lists.

Parents, guardians and students will have to wait till the secretary sights and signs the Grade 11 listings for 2024 (mentioned in Stage 3); and for GES and ICT to publish the list online (Stage 4). 

You know the stages and how long it takes for selection to take place. 

We hope that answers some of your questions. 

If you need more information, check out the links we provide in this article. You can also leave a comment below and let us know what you think.

Have you used the PNG Insight Maths Resource website?

Do you know you can download the Grade 11 and Grade 12 Mathematics (General and Advanced Maths) Exam Papers and all the Topics? 

Yes. PNG Insight has over 10 years of collections of Exam Papers and resources for both teachers and students. 

Check out our Maths Exam Resources get a copy of the topics and download the Exam Papers.

Grade 11 selection lists 2023

How to enrol at FODE?

If you want to upgrade your marks at FODE or at any University Open and Distance Learning Centres, here is some information that you'll find useful. Click on the link to read more. 

Read about PNG Insight's *NEW* maths exam resources website for Grades 12, 10 and 8 students in Papua New Guinea. (Plus, lots of student and teacher maths resources, free to download)


COMMENTARY: The PNG education system is going through significant changes in 10 years to 2029 as indicated in the new National Education Plan 2029 (NEP). Here are the main points:

  • Phase-out Grade 10 & 8 exams and introduce what is called National Education Quality Assessment Testing.
  • Students will continue to Grade 12 without taking the normal exams at Grade 8 and 10, only 1 exit/exam at Grade 12.
The education department and the PNG govt want Churches and Private institutions to do more to deliver Early Childhood Education in what it called the Public-Private and Church Partnership. The department noted that Early Childhood Education is NOT its responsibility at present, however it sees Early Childhood learning as an important entry point in education. A cliché?

School restructure will result in the removal of the Elementary Education Structure and replacing it with Preparatory Schools, prep. A new 1-6-6 structure will come into effect.

This is the structure that many of (if not you) your parents and grandparents have been through. It is like going back to where we started! So why now? Somebody had got it completely wrong?

Is removing exams a mistake?

Removing examinations at Grade 8 and 10 is going to shake the foundation of the Education System in PNG, no doubt. 

The PNG govt and the education advisors have got it wrong in the past. The 1-6-6 to 2-6-4 to 1-6-6 structural re-adjustment is one example of an unnecessary change. Another example of an unnecessary change in the curriculum change we saw lately, OBE to SBE to OBE.

There are many other changes that should not have happened - what is happening is a case of destroying what works well. 

The main reason is that the PNG govt cannot effectively conduct exams - it just costs too much. Furthermore, there are too many students in schools dropping out at Grade 8 and Grade 10 - the govt wants them to have a Grade 12 education. 

However, these are not good reasons to remove examinations (external assessments) and instead opt for classroom-based assessments. THIS CAN BE THE WORST MISTAKE!

You see, this kind of assessment will save the govt money, but it is not as effective as it is intended to be. At present, the education department cannot rely on the internal assessment marks schools sent to Waigani. They need an external assessment. 

Exams and Assessments

The PNG govt and parents need to know that the education department does *not* have to remove the exam and replace it with another assessment it called National Education Quality Assessment Testing. Both can work side by side. 

There are already these kinds of literacy and numeracy (L&N)  assessments at Grades 3, 5 and 7 in PNG called PILNA. In Australia, they have the NAPLAN. These are broad-based  (literacy and numeracy competency) assessments that run alongside the main examinations.

Though these external L&N assessments are different in design and purpose, they are fundamental pillars of measuring learning. 

Therefore, removing one and replacing it with another IS NOT the right thing to do!

The Education Structure 1-6-6

  • Prep 1 year, one entry (1)
  • Primary School, Grade 1 to Grade 6 (6)
  • Sec/National High Schools, Grade 7 - 12 (6)
Indicatively, the 1-6-6 structural adjustment is going to be a huge task.

The education dept plans to 'park' FODE and TVET in high/secondary schools. That would mean that distance education and technical vocational education will be part of the mainstream schools. A better option for 'absorbing' the high number of students at these levels, but just 'parking' these institutions is not good enough. The High/Secondary schools are not parking areas, they are institutions in their own respects.

The CCVE curriculum is in line with the PNG's vision and mission embedded in the Constitution - Christian Country.

In retrospect, a better curriculum teaches the Traditional Ethics & Respect for Elders, Land and Community. CCVE curriculum is absent of the important traditions and cultures of Papua New Guinea. 

What is Christain education when the local knowledge, languages, respect, war history and traditional cultural practices are neglected and or completely absent from the curriculum?

NEP2029 must be a practical document, unlike other past 'paper plans'!

Read the extract from the NEP 2029 below. PNG Insight's Tweets are aimed to add value to this discussion on education planning and development taking place in the country.

You can find the education apps and directory listings here

Fiji is known to have performed really in it Education Goals
NOTE: Fiji has been able to effectively align the Global Education Goals (MDG 2 and SDG 4) to its local targets - performed extremely well as compared to Papua New Guinea. READ ABOUT IT HERE


  1. The current NEP 2020-2029 supersedes the NEP 2015-2019.
  2. The development of the NEP 2020-2029 is based on the best-practice and lessons learnt from the implementation of the NEP 2005-2014, NEP 2015-2019, research documents, reviews, Impact Projects, Programs and data from the Education Management Information System
  3. The National Education Plan was completed in January 2020 and then went through several consultation processes before the CoVID 19 lockdown. The plan was finally approved in principle by NEC in its 19th meeting in 2020 and through the NEC decision 347/2020.
  4. Every province will play a critical role in the implementation of the NEP using the same framework. Provinces will develop their 3 Year Provincial Education

Implementation Plans using the Nine (9) Focus Areas in the NEP 2029

The nine focus areas in the NEP for the next 9 years are:

1. Early Childhood Education 

That all Papua New Guinean children are provided with an opportunity to enrol in an Early Childhood Education program to ensure their full school readiness for entry into the formal education system.

2. Access

That all Papua New Guineans have access to 13 years of education and training in a safe and hygienic environment that is conducive to learning.

3. Equity

That all Papua New Guineans will have equal opportunity regardless of geographic location, economic circumstances, gender and disability.

4. Teachers and teaching

That there will be sufficient well-trained and qualified teachers to meet student demand with resources and support at schools to allow for quality teaching and learning taking place.

5. Quality Learning

That an appropriate curriculum and assessment system is in place to allow learners, supported by relevant and sufficient learning materials, to acquire globally comparable skills and knowledge, certificated when appropriate, required for each to lead a productive and healthy life and contribute meaningfully to national development.

6. Education pathways

That there are easy-to-access pathways available outside of the traditional post-primary education sector that will allow learners to choose an equivalent, alternative way which to attain the knowledge and skills that they need to lead a happy and fulfilling life

7. Local management and partnership

That strong local education leadership at the district, community and school level has ensured well-managed schools, monitored on a regular basis, that are supported by and are fully accountable to the communities that they serve.

8. Management and administration

That national, provincial and district systems will operate efficiently, utilising appropriate information technology, that will allow schools and teachers to focus on improved student learning outcomes.

9. Citizenship and values

That when children exit from the education system they have a sense of who they are and where they come from in respect of Christian principles, their customs, cultures and beliefs, and show tolerance to and an acceptance of PNG ways

Major Strategic Features of the NEP 2020-2029

13 Years of Quality Universal Education: Under this plan, through the school restructure reform, the Department of Education is now taking a bold step to declare 13 years of Universal Education. Children will start at the age of 6 in a preparatory grade and receive a relevant 13 years until they reach grade 12. The move is an exciting and highly significant step forward for PNG as it will see PNG lead in commitments to new global targets.

One Entry One Exit: Children to complete school at Grade 12 and Grade 12 certificate to be the recognized certificate.

Restructure of the School Systems: The plan carefully lays out the 1-6-6 school structure which will see elementary education phased out and replaced as Pre School. 

Key features include the following:

  • Offer 13 years of universal education,
  • One entry at prep and one exit at grade 12.
  • Early childhood will become part of the formal system in 2023 preparing a child for formal schooling at prep grade.
  • Primary education will start at grade 1 and finish at grade 6.
  • High School will start at grade 7 and finish at grade 12.
  • National High Schools to become schools of excellence.

As the restructure takes effect there will be a need to build new or expand existing infrastructure to cater for additional enrolment. The infrastructure development will happen gradually over the plan period.

Early Childhood Education

Early Childhood Education is not at present the responsibility of the DoE but, there is an increasing acknowledgement of its importance and the global call to promote early childhood learning has challenged the department to develop an ECE Policy and to include ECE in this plan. In this plan period, a PNG model for ECE to capture especially the 4 and 5 year olds will take a Public-Private and Church Partnership approach until such time the government takes on board all aspects of all ECE teaching and learning.

Districts and Churches to partner in delivering Early Childhood Education 

Qualified and competent teacher: To cater for 13 years of universal education, teachers in all sectors must receive high-quality pre-service programs and further undergo professional development programs through regular in-service. Along with improved teacher quality, factors such as the provision of suitable housing and better administration of teacher conditions and welfare are critical.

Infrastructure: An important aspect of quality is adequate school infrastructure. There are many schools in the country that do not have this and the Plan required a significant commitment from all parties, including different levels of Government, schools themselves and local communities, to improve this situation. More than just classrooms, the Plan also required specialist buildings to reflect the importance being afforded the STEM disciplines. It is impossible to know just how much has been done because records are not kept. A start has been made on encouraging sound Water, Sanitation Hygiene (WaSH) practices.

Standards-Based CurriculumOutcome-based Education has been phased out and replaced with Standards-Based Education. The standards-based curriculum will be used in all schools. An attempt to harness the power of the digital age in this plan will see the production of the curriculum in electronic forms for e-learning. 

Citizenship and Christian Values Education (CCVE): Implementing CCVE curriculum will pave the way forward for children to be taught life-changing and guiding Christian principles values and ethics

Education Pathways: To achieve Universal Education, students need to be able to choose the most suitable pathways to their needs. This plan looks at developing and promoting an understanding among parents and students for TVET education pathways, purpose and routes to employment. Strengthening the FODE system and linking FODE and TVET will provide a viable option for students’ movements between the education pathways.

Flexible, Open & Distance Education and Technical, Vocational Education Training: FODE and TVET to be parked in a High School or Secondary School in 2021 and onwards. Provincial Governments and Districts to ensure at least one local level Government has a high school.

General Features Education in Papua New Guinea 2029


Despite the progress that has been made in providing education to an increasing number of children and young people, not all Papua New Guineans have been able to benefit fully from these advances. It has long been acknowledged that girls and women have been at a disadvantage. 

This NEP has put in place strategies to try and ensure that girls are given equal opportunities to participate in education and to contribute equally to national development. Equity also takes into account the plight of three other groups of people who have been let down by the formal education system. 

First are those who have special needs and who are not able to take their place in the regular school system. An inclusive education plan has been developed and endorsed with this group in mind.

Second are the children and young people who have been left behind, either because they have never been to school, or have dropped out for whatever reason prior to completing basic education. 

Third are the children from the most rural and remote parts of the country where the schools face their own particular problems.

Examination and Assessment

The current grade 8 and 10 examinations will be used for measuring standards and not for selection while the National Examination at Grade 12 will be for selection into tertiary institutions for all students (in mainstream schools, permitted schools, FODE and TVET institutions). This will be achieved over time. 

It will be mandatory for students to sit for the National Education Quality Standards Assessment Test to monitor curriculum and teacher standards.

Language of Instruction

English will be the language of instruction for all schools in the national education system.

Minimum Operating Standards.

There will be standards set on school sizes, class sizes, and teacher to student ratio for each level of education. These standards will determine the establishment of the new school, approval of additional classes and creation of teaching positions.

Leadership and Partnership

Emphasis is also on School Leadership so that there are good school planning and management. Community and Parental Support is also an essential part of this plan. 

The government will continue to support schools through subsidies and grants. All schools to develop School Learning Improvement Plan (SLIP).

PNG Insight has been following the major developments in education in Papua New Guinea for over 10 years. You can find my work here: Education Policies



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