Showing posts with label National Education Plan 2015 - 2024. Show all posts
Showing posts with label National Education Plan 2015 - 2024. Show all posts

PHASE OUT EXAMS, EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION, FODE, TVET - Why now?

COMMENTARY: The PNG education system is going through significant changes in 10 years to 2029 as indicated in the new National Education Plan 2029 (NEP). Here are the main points:

  • Phase-out Grade 10 & 8 exams and introduce what is called National Education Quality Assessment Testing.
  • Students will continue to Grade 12 without taking the normal exams at Grade 8 and 10, only 1 exit/exam at Grade 12.
The education department and the PNG govt want Churches and Private institutions to do more to deliver Early Childhood Education in what it called the Public-Private and Church Partnership. The department noted that Early Childhood Education is NOT its responsibility at present, however it sees Early Childhood learning as an important entry point in education.

School restructure will result in the removal of the Elementary Education Structure and replacing it with Preparatory Schools, prep. A new 1-6-6 structure will come into effect.

This is the structure that many of (if not you) your parents and grandparents have been through. It is like going back to where we started! So why now? Somebody had got it completely wrong. 

The Education Structure 1-6-6

  • Prep 1 year, one entry (1)
  • Primary School, Grade 1 to Grade 6 (6)
  • Sec/National High Schools, Grade 7 - 12 (6)
Indicatively, the 1-6-6 structural adjustment is going to be a huge task.

The education dept plans to 'park' FODE and TVET in high/secondary schools. That would mean that distance education and technical vocational education will be part of the mainstream schools. A better option for 'absorbing' the high number of students at these levels, but just 'parking' these institutions is not good enough. The High/Secondary schools are not parking areas, they are institutions in their own respects.

The CCVE curriculum is in line with the PNG's vision and mission embedded in the Constitution - Christian Country.

In retrospect, a better curriculum teaches the Traditional Ethics & Respect for Elders, Land and Community. CCVE curriculum is absent of the important traditions and cultures of Papua New Guinea. 

What is Christain education when the local knowledge, languages, respect, war history and traditional cultural practices are neglected and or completely absent from the curriculum?

NEP2029 must be a practical document, unlike other past 'paper plans'!

Read the extract from the NEP 2029 below. PNG Insight's Tweets are aimed to add value to this discussion on education planning and development taking place in the country.

You can find the education apps and directory listings here

Fiji is known to have performed really in it Education Goals
NOTE: Fiji has been able to effectively align the Global Education Goals (MDG 2 and SDG 4) to its local targets - performed extremely well as compared to Papua New Guinea. READ ABOUT IT HERE

Background

  1. The current NEP 2020-2029 supersedes the NEP 2015-2019.
  2. The development of the NEP 2020-2029 is based on the best-practice and lessons learnt from the implementation of the NEP 2005-2014, NEP 2015-2019, research documents, reviews, Impact Projects, Programs and data from the Education Management Information System
  3. The National Education Plan was completed in January 2020 and then went through several consultation processes before the CoVID 19 lockdown. The plan was finally approved in principle by NEC in its 19th meeting in 2020 and through the NEC decision 347/2020.
  4. Every province will play a critical role in the implementation of the NEP using the same framework. Provinces will develop their 3 Year Provincial Education

Implementation Plans using the Nine (9) Focus Areas in the NEP 2029

The nine focus areas in the NEP for the next 9 years are:

1. Early Childhood Education 

That all Papua New Guinean children are provided with an opportunity to enrol in an Early Childhood Education program to ensure their full school readiness for entry into the formal education system.

2. Access

That all Papua New Guineans have access to 13 years of education and training in a safe and hygienic environment that is conducive to learning.

3. Equity

That all Papua New Guineans will have equal opportunity regardless of geographic location, economic circumstances, gender and disability.

4. Teachers and teaching

That there will be sufficient well-trained and qualified teachers to meet student demand with resources and support at schools to allow for quality teaching and learning taking place.

5. Quality Learning

That an appropriate curriculum and assessment system is in place to allow learners, supported by relevant and sufficient learning materials, to acquire globally comparable skills and knowledge, certificated when appropriate, required for each to lead a productive and healthy life and contribute meaningfully to national development.

6. Education pathways

That there are easy-to-access pathways available outside of the traditional post-primary education sector that will allow learners to choose an equivalent, alternative way which to attain the knowledge and skills that they need to lead a happy and fulfilling life

7. Local management and partnership

That strong local education leadership at the district, community and school level has ensured well-managed schools, monitored on a regular basis, that are supported by and are fully accountable to the communities that they serve.

8. Management and administration

That national, provincial and district systems will operate efficiently, utilising appropriate information technology, that will allow schools and teachers to focus on improved student learning outcomes.

9. Citizenship and values

That when children exit from the education system they have a sense of who they are and where they come from in respect of Christian principles, their customs, cultures and beliefs, and show tolerance to and an acceptance of PNG ways

Major Strategic Features of the NEP 2020-2029

13 Years of Quality Universal Education: Under this plan, through the school restructure reform, the Department of Education is now taking a bold step to declare 13 years of Universal Education. Children will start at the age of 6 in a preparatory grade and receive a relevant 13 years until they reach grade 12. The move is an exciting and highly significant step forward for PNG as it will see PNG lead in commitments to new global targets.

One Entry One Exit: Children to complete school at Grade 12 and Grade 12 certificate to be the recognized certificate.

Restructure of the School Systems: The plan carefully lays out the 1-6-6 school structure which will see elementary education phased out and replaced as Pre School. 

Key features include the following:

  • Offer 13 years of universal education,
  • One entry at prep and one exit at grade 12.
  • Early childhood will become part of the formal system in 2023 preparing a child for formal schooling at prep grade.
  • Primary education will start at grade 1 and finish at grade 6.
  • High School will start at grade 7 and finish at grade 12.
  • National High Schools to become schools of excellence.

As the restructure takes effect there will be a need to build new or expand existing infrastructure to cater for additional enrolment. The infrastructure development will happen gradually over the plan period.

Early Childhood Education

Early Childhood Education is not at present the responsibility of the DoE but, there is an increasing acknowledgement of its importance and the global call to promote early childhood learning has challenged the department to develop an ECE Policy and to include ECE in this plan. In this plan period, a PNG model for ECE to capture especially the 4 and 5 year olds will take a Public-Private and Church Partnership approach until such time the government takes on board all aspects of all ECE teaching and learning.

Districts and Churches to partner in delivering Early Childhood Education 

Qualified and competent teacher: To cater for 13 years of universal education, teachers in all sectors must receive high-quality pre-service programs and further undergo professional development programs through regular in-service. Along with improved teacher quality, factors such as the provision of suitable housing and better administration of teacher conditions and welfare are critical.

Infrastructure: An important aspect of quality is adequate school infrastructure. There are many schools in the country that do not have this and the Plan required a significant commitment from all parties, including different levels of Government, schools themselves and local communities, to improve this situation. More than just classrooms, the Plan also required specialist buildings to reflect the importance being afforded the STEM disciplines. It is impossible to know just how much has been done because records are not kept. A start has been made on encouraging sound Water, Sanitation Hygiene (WaSH) practices.

Standards-Based CurriculumOutcome-based Education has been phased out and replaced with Standards-Based Education. The standards-based curriculum will be used in all schools. An attempt to harness the power of the digital age in this plan will see the production of the curriculum in electronic forms for e-learning. 

Citizenship and Christian Values Education (CCVE): Implementing CCVE curriculum will pave the way forward for children to be taught life-changing and guiding Christian principles values and ethics

Education Pathways: To achieve Universal Education, students need to be able to choose the most suitable pathways to their needs. This plan looks at developing and promoting an understanding among parents and students for TVET education pathways, purpose and routes to employment. Strengthening the FODE system and linking FODE and TVET will provide a viable option for students’ movements between the education pathways.

Flexible, Open & Distance Education and Technical, Vocational Education Training: FODE and TVET to be parked in a High School or Secondary School in 2021 and onwards. Provincial Governments and Districts to ensure at least one local level Government has a high school.

General Features Education in Papua New Guinea 2029

Equity

Despite the progress that has been made in providing education to an increasing number of children and young people, not all Papua New Guineans have been able to benefit fully from these advances. It has long been acknowledged that girls and women have been at a disadvantage. 

This NEP has put in place strategies to try and ensure that girls are given equal opportunities to participate in education and to contribute equally to national development. Equity also takes into account the plight of three other groups of people who have been let down by the formal education system. 

First are those who have special needs and who are not able to take their place in the regular school system. An inclusive education plan has been developed and endorsed with this group in mind.

Second are the children and young people who have been left behind, either because they have never been to school, or have dropped out for whatever reason prior to completing basic education. 

Third are the children from the most rural and remote parts of the country where the schools face their own particular problems.

Examination and Assessment

The current grade 8 and 10 examinations will be used for measuring standards and not for selection while the National Examination at Grade 12 will be for selection into tertiary institutions for all students (in mainstream schools, permitted schools, FODE and TVET institutions). This will be achieved over time. 

It will be mandatory for students to sit for the National Education Quality Standards Assessment Test to monitor curriculum and teacher standards.

Language of Instruction

English will be the language of instruction for all schools in the national education system.

Minimum Operating Standards.

There will be standards set on school sizes, class sizes, and teacher to student ratio for each level of education. These standards will determine the establishment of the new school, approval of additional classes and creation of teaching positions.

Leadership and Partnership

Emphasis is also on School Leadership so that there are good school planning and management. Community and Parental Support is also an essential part of this plan. 

The government will continue to support schools through subsidies and grants. All schools to develop School Learning Improvement Plan (SLIP).

PNG Insight has been following the major developments in education in Papua New Guinea for over 10 years. You can find my work here: Education Policies

5 Educational Strategies Needed Urgent Attention In Papua New Guinea - Where Are The Details?

The academic year 2015 started. Talks about change in Education structure and curriculum have taken a back seat. So, what is the latest development? Well nothing much is happening: there is no news on National Education Plan 2015 – 2024 yet; not much has been said about 2-6-6 structural change; Education Department has not released weekly update on Standard Based Curriculum it promised. Everything seemed to have come to a standstill.

Ideally, NEP 2015 – 2024 would have come out by now. But this plan remains to be seen. Is there anything done about it? No one knows yet.

Education Minister responded to questions in the first parliament sitting 2015 that structural change (2-6-6) will take effect next year. There is very little information about how the change will take place. No doubt this change will require adjustment to ‘transitional stages’. By this I mean, transition from 2 to 6 (Grade 2 – 3) and 6 to 6 (Grade 8 – 9).

Adjustment to the current structure must take place for 2-6-6 structural change to work. It sounds too good: 2 years of elementary, 6 years of primary and 6 years of secondary. But, wait a minute?

What would become of the current elementary schools? What would happen to primary schools with their Grades 7 and 8? How would secondary schools cope with Grades 7,8,9,10,11 and 12?

Where does Standard Based Education factor in all these changes? At what stage do students sit examinations? What are the examination subjects? What key learning objectives are tested? What is needed now is DETAIL. Where is the detail?

There are more questions to ask then answers. Papua New Guinean schools are halfway into term 1 and yet rest of the year is shrouded in anticipation – anticipation for a clear plan for a better education system.

Someone, somewhere has to take the lead. Unfortunately, the onus is on leaders in Education Department. They should try harder to get the changes right the first time. NDoE secretary and Education Minister have to take a proactive role. They must address these issues urgently, today.

1: Publish national education plan for the next 10 years
2: Give details of the structural changes
3: Give details of the Standard Based Curriculum
4: Identify examination years and give details of examined subjects

5: Clearly explain what would happen to National High Schools (Schools of Excellence) and at Primary and Secondary schools.

Papua New Guinea Education System: A System Battered Since Tuition Free Policy, No Plan Of Action

The National Department of Education has seen many changes. Dr Joseph Pagalio, Dr Musawe Sinebare and Dr Michael Tapo were at the helm and saw the changes through. They can attest to the fact changes are not bad.

But it is ominous PNG’s education system is undergoing four changes since Tuition Free Fee policy was introduced without clear guidelines. This is a recipe for disaster. It is better to avoid repeating mistakes encountered when implementing Outcome Based Education (OBE). This is a generational change. It must be thought through properly.

Lack of planning was obvious before school started. First, Papua New Guinea did not have a 10 year education plan to date. National Education Plan 2005 – 2014 (NEP 2005 – 2014) lapsed last year. If there was a committee working on it, why was it not out?

A 10-year plan is crucial. It puts in perspective a working plan for all stakeholders to follow. It would be better if NEP 2015 – 2024 was made available to everyone sooner rather than later.

The second change is the change is structure, Two-Six-Six: two years of elementary school, six years of primary school and six years of secondary school. I highlighted differences between new and old structures in an earlier post.

The education system is expecting a structural readjustment – just how this will happen is as important as when it will happen. The education minister mentioned that structural change will take effect next year, 2016. However, it would be better if he stated how NDoE would roll it out nationwide.

The third change is the change is curriculum. Make no mistake, reverting to Standard Based Curriculum (from Outcome Based Curriculum) is change in educational curriculum. It is about changing educational instruction – the way works is done. So, what kind of instruction is changing? What unit (or topic, or objective, etc.) is changing? What makes it different to OBE? How can stakeholders, including teachers, compare and contrast OBE to SBE? It is better to give answers to those questions to clarify misunderstanding, is it not?

The final change that needs taking place is implementation of 12 recommendations made by Parliamentary Referral Committee on Education (PRCE) on teachers’ welfare.  Ganim report cannot be left to gather dust. The education minister has to table this report. Parliament must deliberate on it findings. There is never a better time to hear our teachers’ cries than now.

All in all, since the government’s Tuition Free Fee policy started, the education system has got its fair share of battering. It is time to put in motion a clear plan of action and reward our teachers properly.

Papua New Guinea National Education Plan - Has The Education System Failed, Is It Failing?



Department of Education Awareness on SBE (CLICK HERE)
Papua New Guineans and concerned friends who do not have the means to put their child/ren in overseas schools or private schools have to take these 4 points seriously: 

1) National Education Plan 2005 - 2014 has lapsed. A new NEP (the NEP 2015 - 2024) is NOT out this year. Why is the plan - road map for the next 10 years - not out in the public before the school year begins? 

2) Curriculum change (Outcomes Based Education to Standards Based Education) is a system-wide change which takes effect throughout every stage of schooling and it starts now, 2015. The Education Minister and National Department of Education secretary mentioned that this change would take effect regardless of early awareness and preparation. How the change will happen or what is actually changing in still not clear. 

3) Structural Change (2-6-6) – The curriculum change is closely followed by structural adjustment. Unlike curriculum change where it takes effect across the system, the two-six-six structural readjustment is gradual. This means that children starting school this year will be pioneer generation. Instead of spending 12 years in schools (i.e. Elementary Gr 1 -2 , primary Gr 3 - 8  and secondary Gr 9-12, every student starting  school in 2015 will spend 14 years (not 12 years) before reaching University. So, Papua New Guineas who send their kids to start school at age 6 or 7 now have to realise that these kids will be 20 or 21 when they do first year at university, not 18 or 19. So, what is the right age to start school now? Do we want our kids to be 20/21 before entering unis? 

4) Project Fee - schools are directed by the Minister and NDoE not to charge project fees or face disciplinary action. Why now and not 2012, 2013 and 2014? Tuition Free Policy was implemented since 2012. Do the parents get a refund backdated to 2012? Most of them had been paying project fees.

These 4 points show that the Education minister, his secretary, education officials and foreign education consultants are playing around with 'human resource' of PNG. The heads are so disorganised putting parents, principals and teachers placed in precarious situation beginning 2015 school year. There is no clear direction from the top. 

These are changes that will have a big impact in the next 10 years (NEP 2015-2024) and the next 14 years (structural change). The best thing the National Department of Education needs to do is to give CLEAR directive to head teachers about what is expected as far as the changes and NEP are concerned.

Growth, A Challenge Turned Problem - Why PNG Government Oblivious To The Obvious

To make progress in a changing World, education system has to evolve  and adapt to social, demographic, technological and other modern changes. Reforming the education  system was one way to adapt to this changes.

Papua New Guinea National Education Plan 2005 to 2014 was an important document. It encompassed development phases at elementary, primary, secondary and technical education in detail. It was a 10-year working plan, thoroughly outlined to guide every stakeholder involved in giving and receiving educational services.



The aims and time-frame for achieving each outcome was clearly indicated in a 148-page documentChallenges identified by the working committee have remained the same to this day. Why were those challenges not addressed according to the timeline? What made it so difficult? 

There were (are) 5 main challenges: Growth, Quality, Financing, Maintainable and Management. Lets start with the first challenge. 

The NEP 2005 - 2014 working committee realised that retention of students' population between elementary and secondary schools was challenging. This was recorded in the Situation Analysis report:

….improving retention through the years of basic education; improving delivery of education services in rural and remote areas; strengthening the vocational education and training sector to support appropriate courses and to make better use of partnerships with the private sector and community agencies; and securing adequate government budget support for the reform to manage the enrollment growth. [NEP 2005 – 2014, Situation Analysis pp 21 – 37]. 

By 2005 the Reform would have been implemented for 12 years. There were two retention problems - students pulling out (those leaving school at their own will between elementary and secondary school) and students dropping out (those leaving after examination at Grades 8, 10 and 12). Controlling the the earlier problem was documented. But, the later was not. The WB and and working knew maintaining school attendance was going to be tough. What they didn't foresee was the increase in number of students who would have actually left at the end of Grades 10 and 12.

Any responsible government would have seen the need to prepare universities and colleges to accommodate students at the end of their examination years. That was where successive PNG governments have failed, and continue to fail its young citizens. When is retention likely to improve? Perhaps Papua New Guineans who are supposed to advise successive governments on policy matters failed the people. Maybe the WB could have look at things differently at the biginning of Education Reform.

The fact of the matter is that two decades later, the national education system cannot sustain a growing population passing through. The Education Reform created a bottled neck effect. Though insignificant during early Reform days, this effect has had a big generational impact 22 years later. The strain on the system is shocking when only 1 in 5 Grade 12 student makes it to a tertiary institution. 

It is reasonable to maintain a good flow of students from one stage to another. What happens to 80% of young men and women? Why didn't any development take place at tertiary level?  Apparently, a World Bank [WB] condition restrained any growth at tertiary institutions. This was clearly indicated in a press release from Australian National University

In part it reads “… The World Bank, for example, in the mid-1990s, was prepared to support only development projects that targeted universal basic education and would not entertain forms of assistance at the tertiary level of education.”

PNG government was bowing to WB. Instead of developing the whole system, it created lots of elementary, primary and secondary schools all over the country, without any expansion at the higher level to absorb the output. 

In fact, any chance of growth at higher education was stalled as a direct result of the WB condition given as shown in ANU report.

After 2 decades of the Reform and the result is there for all to see. There are only 4500 spaces at tertiary institutions today. Of the 21430 Grade 12 students, over 16000 will be ejected from a formal tertiary education. This is real, it is frightening. 

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I would like to make it clear that this article does not intend to throw egg on the government, or WB or education officials. It simply questions why government ignore a challenge identified in the National Education Plan 2005 to 2014.
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?My next article will be about the second challenge identified in 2005 by the NEP planning committee - Quality.

National Education Plan 2015 - 2019 Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world


As PNG looks forward to another 5-year National Education Plan, NEP 2015 – 2019, over 21000 grade 12 graduates are competing for one of the 4500 places at tertiary institutions nationwide.  Where will 80% of these young men and women go? What is their future? How do we arm them with the 'most powerful weapon' - EDUCATION after grade 12?

NEP 2005 – 2014 clearly outlined specific recommendations (and ways) to achieve its goals. The vision was clear. I will pinpoint certain areas where government and National Department of Education (NDoE) should have done right in articles (II) – (IV).

This article gives an introductory remark on way forward in next 10 years by looking at why Nelson Mandela said “Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.”



His words are relevant in PNG now.

This great man gave his speech during his first visit to the US after his release from 27 years imprisonment. In the early 1990 many students dropped out of school. That was why he stressed the importance of school and education. He wanted to get the message to every student - young man and woman who was present that time.

He also said “This [students dropping out from school] is a very disturbing situation, because the youth of today are the leaders of tomorrow,” he told the students . He urged students to “try as much as possible to remain in school.”

The message was clear: he gave it at the right time to the right audience. Many students present took the message in.  Here is one example.

Papua New Guinea education planners need to get this message in, too. Education consultants, researchers, NDoE secretary and time wasters at the department must get their heads together.

This isn’t a time for planning as it may seem. It is time for planning and implementing a new (or adjusted) 10-year vision.

The words of Mandela rings through to this day when over 80% of Grade 12s do not have a place in higher educational institutions. It is time to create National Education Plan that encompasses not only the UN’s Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), BUT also relevant to PNG.

Why not start by addressing high dropout rate? Look no further than do what needed done is the best way forward.